2017 Vol. 12, No. 2

Contens of CJSR 2017, Vol.11, No.2
Chinese Journal of Ship Research
2017, 12(2): .
[1] Numerical analysis of viscous effect on ship rolling motions based on CFD…LUO Tian,WAN Decheng (1) [2] Hull forms and straight forward CFD free running trials of high-speed shuttle vessels… WEI Chengzhu,YI Hong,LI Yinghui (12) [3] Influence of waterjet duct on ship's resistance performance…QIAN Hao,SONG Kewei,GUO Chunyu,et al (22) [4] Seakeeping analysis of two ships advancing parallel for underway replenishment…ZHENG Pingyu,LI Peng,LIU Jingxi,et al (30) [5] A review of warship man-machine-environment system engineering…ZHANG Yumei (41) [6] Investigation of the hydrodynamic model test of forced rolling for a barge using PIV…WANG Xiaoqiang,LIU Huaixi,MA Shan,et al (49) [7] Data analysis of ship ventilation ducts based on CATIA V6…LU Yongjin,WU Bo,LI Taotao (57) [8] Numerical research of hydrodynamic performance of hybrid CRP podded propulsor in steering conditions…XU Jiaqi,XIONG Ying,WANG Zhanzhi (63) [9] High-efficiency airfoil rudders applied to submarines…ZHOU Yimei,ZHANG Shuyi,LU Wei,et al (71) [10] Numerical simulation on bearing force of propeller for machining errors in non-uniform inflow…YU Anbin,YE Jinming,ZHANG Kaiqi (78) [11] 3D analytical method for the external dynamics of ship collisions and investigation of the coefficient of restitution…LIU Junfeng,HU Zhiqiang (84) [12] Stress strength characteristics analysis of sphere-toroid-cylinder combined shell…XIONG Jingyi,LIU Yong,MA Jianjun (92) [13] Multidisciplinary integrated design optimization methodology of marine power plants…ZENG Fanming,LIU Jinlin,LAI Guojun (100) [14] Review of hot corrosion of thermal barrier coatings of gas turbine… LIU Yongbao,LIU Jianhua,YU Youhong,et al (107) [15] The depth and pitch control of submarines based on the pump-hydraulic servo…XU Chao,LIU Gang,XU Guohua,et al (116) [16] Development of control system in abdominal operating ROV…ZHANG Weikang,WANG Guanxue,XU Guohua,et al (124) [17] Modeling and simulation of five DOF motions for SWATH ships…MA Jianwen,ZHANG Anxi,ZHOU Zhaoxin,et al (133) [18] A method for maintained part oriented visibility analysis…FANG Xiongbing,LI Taotao (137) [19] Quantitative analysis method for ship construction quality…FU Senzong,WANG Hongdong,YI Hong (143)
Ship Design and Performance
Numerical analysis of viscous effect on ship rolling motions based on CFD
Tian LUO, Decheng WAN
2017, 12(2): 1-11, 48. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2017.02.001
During the ship design procedure, the analysis of ship rolling motions is of great significance because the rolling motions have extraordinary effects on the sea-keeping, maneuverability and stability of a ship. It is difficult to simulate rolling motions due to the effect of viscosity, which causes many nonlinear components in computation. As such, the potential theory used for other ship motions cannot be used for rolling motions. This paper simulates the rolling motions of the DTMB 5512 ship model and the ship transverse section of the S60 ship model with a naoe-FOAM-SJTU solver using the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) method based on the OpenFOAM. The results of rolling motions are compared with the experimental data, which confirms the reliability of the meshes and results. For the ship transverse section of the S60 ship model, the damping coefficient is divided into three parts with the Euler and RANS methods:friction, vorticity and wave parts. For the DTMB 5512 ship model, the damping coefficient is also respectively analyzed, including the friction, vorticity, wave and bilge keel parts. The results in this paper show that the vorticity part accounts for the greatest proportion, while the friction part accounts for the least, and the bilge keels reduces the damping moment to a certain extent which shows the effect of rolling parameters on rolling motions and moments.
Hull forms and straight forward CFD free running trials of high-speed shuttle vessels
Chengzhu WEI, Hong YI, Yinghui LI
2017, 12(2): 12-21. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2017.02.002
SV-SJTU high-speed shuttle vessels are developed by Shanghai Jiao Tong University for fine seakeeping and high speed purposes. A series of SV-SJTUs have been developed, and are introduced in this paper. Straight forward CFD free running trials were conducted and the results are also presented. Hull resistance and motions are predicted by solving URANS equations and adopting the overset mesh method. The results of the straight forward CFD free running trials prove that SV-SJTUs have little resistance and fine hull motion in calm water, and their wave-making and splashing differ with different hull forms. This paper presents the designs of a variety of high performance ships, thereby providing quantitative and quali-tative references for researchers.
Influence of waterjet duct on ship's resistance performance
Hao QIAN, Kewei SONG, Chunyu GUO, Jie GONG
2017, 12(2): 22-29. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2017.02.003
The waterjet duct can change the flow field of the stern, and it has a great influence on the resistance performance of the ship. The resistance performance of marine vehicles driven by waterjets is very different from that of conventional ships, so it is meaningful to study the changes to the resistance performance of the ship. We used the CFD software STAR-CCM +, treated the waterjet duct as the appendage and compared the change of the flow field in the stern after the installation of the waterjet duct at different angles. We described the change mechanism of the ship's resistance and resistance components by comparing the change in pressure distribution of the waterjet duct's surface and the flow field around the hull. The results show that STAR-CCM+ can realize the prediction of ship resistance performance because the simulation results achieved perfect accuracy, and it is gradually becoming the development direction of the resistance performance prediction of marine vehicles driven by waterjets. The installation of the waterjet duct will increase the resistance of the ship, which is mainly due to the increase of pressure resistance. In addition, the resistance performance of a ship driven by waterjets can be improved by the optimization of the waterjet duct's angle.
Seakeeping analysis of two ships advancing parallel for underway replenishment
Pingyu ZHENG, Peng LI, Jingxi LIU, Hengkui YE
2017, 12(2): 30-40, 48. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2017.02.004
Due to the wave and hydrodynamic interaction between two ships advancing parallel on the ocean, their six-degrees-of-freedom motions are much more complex during replenishment. The seakeeping performance of two vessels is analyzed with AQWA. On the basis of the RAO functions of the two parallel vessels, spectrum analysis and time-domain analysis were carried out, and the significant amplitudes were obtained using the computed time-history and correlation function method. The significant amplitudes are compared with the results of the spectrum analysis and good agreement is observed. It is found that hydrodynamic interaction between two ships has a great impact on the process of replenishment. Depending on the results of the analysis, dangerous conditions during the replenishment process could be avoided, thereby ensuring the safety of supply work.
A review of warship man-machine-environment system engineering
2017, 12(2): 41-48. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2017.02.005
Warship Man-Machine-Environment System Engineering (MMESE) is an integral part of the overall design, and its design principles were proposed according to safety, efficiency, comfort and pleasure. The typical characteristics of MMESE are summarized. The operating environment is extremely terrible on long voyages. High level collaboration is required due to the complex task system and large manpower demand. Owing to the dense computer interface information, the mental cognitive burden on the crew is heavy. The MMESE technology system is divided into four parts:man-machine coordinated, man-environment coordinated, the evaluation of man-machine-environment characteristics and the ergonomic simulation. Based on the MMESE development venation in this paper, the overseas and domestic research statuses are expounded. Interactive optimization can be realized according to the following aspects:researching the basic human characteristics of the crew, applying this to the warship's overall design, and formulating relevant ergonomic standards and norms. Next, Human System Integration (HSI) professional engineering was introduced comprehensively into the marines in order to achieve an optimal system. On this basis, we completed the future development trend analysis. All these studies and results have some reference meaning for guiding the integrated optimization of warships as a whole, downsizing the manpower and improving efficiency.
Investigation of the hydrodynamic model test of forced rolling for a barge using PIV
Xiaoqiang WANG, Huaixi LIU, Shan MA, Chunyu GUO
2017, 12(2): 49-56. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2017.02.006
In order to study the physical details of viscous flow in ship roll motions and improve the accuracy of ship roll damping numerical simulation, the application of the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique is investigated in model tests of forced ship rolling in calm water. The hydrodynamic force and flow field at the bilge region are simultaneously measured for barges at different amplitudes and frequencies in which the self-made forced rolling facility was used. In the model test, the viscous flow variation with the time around the bilge region was studied during ship rolling motion. The changes in ship roll damping coefficients with the rolling amplitude and period were also investigated. A comparison of the model test results with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results shows that the numerical ship roll damping coefficients agree well with the model test results, while the differences in the local flow details exist between the CFD results and model test results. Further research into the model test technique and CFD application is required.
Data analysis of ship ventilation ducts based on CATIA V6
Yongjin LU, Bo WU, Taotao LI
2017, 12(2): 57-62. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2017.02.007
In order to research on CATIA V6 ship duct design and related data, combined with a practical engineering background, a three-dimensional design method for the CATIA V6 ventilation system is exhibited, and the catalog composition of duct fittings and duct lofting process are presented. Meanwhile, revolving around the system design modules, the module processing objects and data storage location are analyzed in order to determine the object of study. And on this basis, the definition and specific content of the engineering technological tables are illustrated in detail; specifically, the contents are extended. Moreover, in light of the three-dimensional model, further research into the underlying data structure of ventilation ducts is implemented. The relationships between the major technological tables are shown. The results of the study are not only beneficial for designers to grasp design technology, but also essential for software developers to secure theoretical guidance and technical support.
Ship Structure and Fitting
Numerical research of hydrodynamic performance of hybrid CRP podded propulsor in steering conditions
Jiaqi XU, Ying XIONG, Zhanzhi WANG
2017, 12(2): 63-70, 99. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2017.02.008
In order to study the influence of steering conditions to hybrid CRP podded propulsor, the calculation of the NACA0012 open-water rudder's lift coefficient was carried out by applying the RANS method combined with the SST k-ω turbulence model, and the near wall mesh arrangement and near wall treatment method applied in numerical calculation were selected through comparisons between the experimental results and the calculation results. The hydrodynamic performance of a podded propulsor was predicted on the basis of the above, and the calculation results showed a good agreement with the experimental results. The object of the research was a hybrid CRP podded propulsor, and its hydrodynamic performance in steering conditions was predicted by applying the numerical method above. Conclusions were drawn on the relationship between hydrodynamic performance parameters and steering angle, i.e. larger magnitudes of the after propeller thrust, pod horizontal force and steering moment will be acquired at larger steering angles, and the fore propeller thrust is basically as invariant as the pod steering. The internal reasons were also analyzed. Research shows that the propeller has good maneuverability, and will have wide application prospect.
High-efficiency airfoil rudders applied to submarines
Yimei ZHOU, Shuyi ZHANG, Wei LU, Hanbao HE
2017, 12(2): 71-77. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2017.02.009
Modern submarine design puts forward higher and higher requirements for control surfaces, and this creates a requirement for designers to constantly innovate new types of rudder so as to improve the efficiency of control surfaces. Adopting the high-efficiency airfoil rudder is one of the most effective measures for improving the efficiency of control surfaces. In this paper, we put forward an optimization method for a high-efficiency airfoil rudder on the basis of a comparative analysis of the various strengths and weaknesses of the airfoil, and the numerical calculation method is adopted to analyze the influence rule of the hydrodynamic characteristics and wake field by using the high-efficiency airfoil rudder and the conventional NACA rudder comparatively; at the same time, a model load test in a towing tank was carried out, and the test results and simulation calculation obtained good consistency:the error between them was less than 10%. The experimental results show that the steerage of a high-efficiency airfoil rudder is increased by more than 40% when compared with the conventional rudder, but the total resistance is close:the error is no more than 4%. Adopting a high-efficiency airfoil rudder brings much greater lifting efficiency than the total resistance of the boat. The results show that high-efficiency airfoil rudder has obvious advantages for improving the efficiency of control, giving it good application prospects.
Numerical simulation on bearing force of propeller for machining errors in non-uniform inflow
Anbin YU, Jinming YE, Kaiqi ZHANG
2017, 12(2): 78-83. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2017.02.010
In order to study the bearing force caused by the machining errors of composite material propeller in non-uniform flow, the propeller was computed by changing the machining error of the propeller in six degrees of freedom, in which the main blade translates and rotates along the coordinate axis artificially by way of the statistical method. The bearing force of a DTMB P4119 propeller with a machining error was calculated according to the SST k-ω model and sliding meshing non-uniform flow to figure out the impact of various machining errors on the propeller, enabling a fundamental rule about the impact of various machining errors on a propeller's bearing force to be formed. The results show that vertical bearing force and horizontal bearing force increase linearly, and first-order blade frequency bearing force rarely changes with the increase of machining errors in each freedom; machining errors along the directions of diameter and pitch have a great impact on the propeller shaft's frequency bearing force. Therefore, we can put forward a more refined principle about the machining accuracy of propellers.
3D analytical method for the external dynamics of ship collisions and investigation of the coefficient of restitution
Junfeng LIU, Zhiqiang HU
2017, 12(2): 84-91. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2017.02.011
The analytical method for predicting the dynamic responses of a ship in a collision scenario features speed and accuracy, and the external dynamics constitute an important part. A 3D simplified analytical method is implemented by MATLAB and used to calculate the energy dissipation of ship-ship collisions. The results obtained by the proposed method are then compared with those of a 2D simplified analytical method. The total dissipated energy can be obtained through the proposed analytical method, and the influence of the collision heights, angles and locations on the dissipated energy is discussed on that basis. Furthermore, the effects of restitution on the conservative coefficients and the effects of conservative coefficients on energy dissipation are discussed. It is concluded that the proposed 3D analysis yields a lesser energy dissipation than that of the 2D analysis, and the collision height has a significant influence on the dissipated energy. In using the proposed simplified method, it is not safe to simplify the conservative coefficient as zero when the collision angle is greater than 90 degrees. In the future research, to get more accurate energy dissipation, it is a good way to adopt the 3D simplified analytical method instead of the 2D method.
Stress strength characteristics analysis of sphere-toroid-cylinder combined shell
Jingyi XIONG, Yong LIU, Jianjun MA
2017, 12(2): 92-99. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2017.02.012
Spherical bulkheads are widely used in large-deep submersibles due to their high volume-weight ratio and material utilization. The sphere-toroid-cylinder combined spherical bulkhead has the advantages of a simple structural style, clear mechanical property and relatively low construction difficulty, resulting in great engineering applicability. In this paper, spherical bulkheads with sphere-toroid-cylinder combination are studied, and their stress strength characteristics under uniform external pressure are analyzed. The Riccati transfer matrix method is used for the calculation of spherical bulkhead structure by combining shell control equations. The paper is concerned with the stress strength analysis of the sphere-toroid-cylinder combined spherical bulkhead under external even pressure. To improve the performance of the structural strength of spherical bulkheads, the influences of parameters including sphere shell radius, toroid shell radius and boundary rigidity on the stress strength of the sphere-toroid-cylinder combined shell are discussed using the Riccati transfer matrix method. In order to depict the geometric figure and mechanical character of the bulkhead, the concept of 'flatness' is proposed, and the suggested range of 'flatness' is given. In this range, the mechanical constraints of the ring-stiffened cylinder acting on the sphere-toroid combined shell may be taken as simple support, thus simplifying the calculation of structural strength. The conclusions drawn from this paper can be used as reference points for the design of sphere-toroid-cylinder combined shell structures.
Marine Machinery, Electrical Equipment and Automation
Multidisciplinary integrated design optimization methodology of marine power plants
Fanming ZENG, Jinlin LIU, Guojun LAI
2017, 12(2): 100-106, 115. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2017.02.013
In this paper, based on a full analysis of the research status for the overall design of marine power plants, the problem of the improvement of marine power plant design being limited by a lack of research into multidisciplinary coupling simulation and optimization for marine power plant design is pointed out, research into the multidisciplinary integrated design optimization theory and methodology for marine power plants is proposed, and a framework for a multidisciplinary integrated design system for marine power plants is built. Furthermore, multidisciplinary optimization technology, modern design tool technology, collaborative simulation technology, supporting platform technology, collaborative design software development and other key technologies are studied. A solution method is proposed. The research in this paper can provide a reference for the multidisciplinary integrated optimization design of marine power plants, and it may also help to improve the design quality of marine main power plants.
Review of hot corrosion of thermal barrier coatings of gas turbine
Yongbao LIU, Jianhua LIU, Youhong YU, Xing HE, Li LIU
2017, 12(2): 107-115. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2017.02.014
The review was done in order to make clear the problem of the hot corrosion of the Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) during gas turbine serving. This paper summarizes the factors resulting from the hot corrosion of TBCs during turbine service and classifies methods for enhancing the corrosive resistance of TBCs. A prospective methodology for improving corrosion resistance is also formulated. The main types of corrosion coating include phase reaction, oxidizing of the bond coating, salt-fog corrosion, CMAS corrosion and fuel impurity corrosion. So far, methods for improving the corrosion resistance of TBCs include developing new coating materials, anticorrosive treatment on the surface of TBCs, modifying the stacking configuration and improving the cleansing functions of the gas turbines. In the future, developing new materials with excellent performance will still be the main direction for boosting the improvement of the hot corrosion resistance of TBCs. Simultaneously, improving the tacking configuration and nanotechnology of TBC coatings are potential approaches for improving corrosion resistance. With the development of a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC), the focus of the hot corrosion of TBCs may turn to that of Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBCs).
The depth and pitch control of submarines based on the pump-hydraulic servo
Chao XU, Gang LIU, Guohua XU, Fengyuan LI, Yunfeng ZHAI
2017, 12(2): 116-123. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2017.02.015
This study aims to research submarine motion control features in different conditions and com-plex environments in order to solve the problem of actual submarine control and apply it to building an actu-al hydraulic control platform. The paper focuses on the vertical motion of submarines, designs a fast termi-nal sliding mode control algorithm and analyzes the data using the combined simulation and experiment method to study the robustness and reliability of a submarine's vertical motion control system for hydraulic and control. At the same time, the simulation and experiment results analyze the hysteresis and oscillation of the hydraulic steering gear, and effectively reduce the chattering that may be caused by sliding mode variable structure control. This system can be used in simulations to solve the problems of new submarine control characteristics.
Development of control system in abdominal operating ROV
Weikang ZHANG, Guanxue WANG, Guohua XU, Chang LIU, Xiong SHEN
2017, 12(2): 124-132. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2017.02.016
In order to satisfy all the requirements of Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) recovery tasks, a new type of abdominal operating Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) was developed. The abdominal operating ROV is different from the general ROV which works by a manipulator, as it completes the docking and recovery tasks of UUVs with its abdominal operating mechanism. In this paper, the system composition and principles of the abdominal operating ROV are presented. We then propose a framework for a control system in which the integrated industrial reinforced computer acts as a surface monitor unit, while the PC104 embedded industrial computer acts as the underwater master control unit and the other drive boards act as the driver unit. In addition, the dynamics model and a robust H-infinity controller for automatic orientation in the horizontal plane were designed and built. Single tests, system tests and underwater tests show that this control system has good real-time performance and reliability, and it can complete the recovery task of a UUV. The presented structure and algorithm could have reference significance to the control system development of mobile robots, drones, and biomimetic robot.
Modeling and simulation of five DOF motions for SWATH ships
Jianwen MA, Anxi ZHANG, Zhaoxin ZHOU, Shaoyi GUO
2017, 12(2): 133-136, 150. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2017.02.017
To develop marine simulators of Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull (SWATH) ships and gain a better understanding of the maneuverability of the SWATH, a mathematical model with five Degree of Freedom (DOF) for SWATH has been established, in which the surge, sway, yaw, roll and pitch motions are all considered. The characteristics of the SWATH ship form and the hydrodynamic interaction among the twin bodies, twin propellers and twin rudders are taken into consideration on the basis of the three DOF maneuvering mathematical model. To verify the effectiveness of the modeling and ensure the use of the model in marine handling simulators, a detailed model is tentatively established on the basis of empirical formulas. Based on the acquired results, tests were performed to simulate the steady turning and zigzag motions of the ship. The results are in accordance with regular pattern and trend of motion of SWATH ships. This verifies the effectiveness of the mathematical model of the turning movement.
Shipbuilding and Maintenance
A method for maintained part oriented visibility analysis
Xiongbing FANG, Taotao LI
2017, 12(2): 137-142. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2017.02.018
To by pass the limitation of the human eyes oriented analysis approach, a maintenance part ori-ented visibility analysis method for maintenance simulation is proposed in this paper by taking the coupling relations among the visibility, accessibility, and operation space into account. Firstly, the general work flow of the traditional human eyes oriented analysis technique is analyzed. Secondly, a new work flow that uses points on the maintained part as vertexes to generate visibility cones to help the visibility analysis is brought forward. The functional elements of the flow are further analyzed in detail. Finally, the function module based on the maintained part oriented visibility analysis is designed and implemented with Tcl/Tk and Jackscript programming languages in the Jack simulation software. Simulation examples indicate that the proposed method helps confirm the appropriate standing positions and body postures efficiently when inspecting and validating the maintained part's visibility. The method is helpful for improving the efficiency of analyzing and validating visibility index under complex environment.
Quantitative analysis method for ship construction quality
Senzong FU, Hongdong WANG, Hong YI
2017, 12(2): 143-150. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2017.02.019
The excellent performance of a ship is assured by the accurate evaluation of its construction quality. For a long time, research into the construction quality of ships has mainly focused on qualitative analysis due to a shortage of process data, which results from limited samples, varied process types and non-standardized processes. Aiming at predicting and controlling the influence of the construction process on the construction quality of ships, this article proposes a reliability quantitative analysis flow path for the ship construction process and fuzzy calculation method. Based on the process-quality factor model proposed by the Function-Oriented Quality Control (FOQC) method, we combine fuzzy mathematics with the expert grading method to deduce formulations calculating the fuzzy process reliability of the ordinal connection model, series connection model and mixed connection model. The quantitative analysis method is applied in analyzing the process reliability of a ship's shaft gear box installation, which proves the applicability and effectiveness of the method. The analysis results can be a useful reference for setting key quality inspection points and optimizing key processes.