Current Issue

2023, Volume 18,  Issue 1

2023, 18(1)
Unmanned Marine Vehicle Swarm Technology
Analysis of characteristics of foreign unmanned surface vehicle swarm combat application and proposed countermeasures
FENG Wei, CUI Donghua, XIA Tianbing, YAN Zhaokun, WANG Hongdong
2023, 18(1): 1-12. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02890
As an important component of future naval campaigns, the unmanned surface vehicle (USV) swarm is an important direction for the development of unmanned maritime assets in various counties. This paper first summarizes the current strategic planning and application status of USV swarms in foreign countries, then dissects the research progress of USV swarms in such aspects as cluster communication, battlefield situation awareness and cooperative task assignment. At the same time, the typical combat operation modes and main benefits of USV swarms are analyzed and assessed. Finally, current challenges that need to be tackled in USV swarm combat operation are analyzed, and countermeasures that can be taken against the technological development of USV swarm combat operation are predicted.
Survey of ship platoon cooperative control
CHU Xiumin, WU Wenxiang, LIU Chenguang, LEI Chaofan, HE Zhibo, LI Songlong
2023, 18(1): 13-28. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02915
The ship platoon will become an important form of water transport in the future. This paper analyzes the characteristics and control principle of ship platoon cooperative control, and analyzes the current situation and methods in the four aspects of ship-shore cooperative platoon, platoon control model, platoon motion control and typical platoon applications. The current bottlenecks of ship platoon control technology are summarized, including human-machine fusion control, platoon motion control uncertainty modeling, platoon cooperative consistency control modeling, robust control under communication constraints and consistency control. In the future development of ship platoons, we should focus on solving the problems of platoon motion modeling based on data-driven and mechanism fusion, ship platoon control based on the biological group mechanism and the application of hierarchical control in ship platoon control.
Review and prospects of underwater glider path planning
SHI Qingqing, NIU Wendong, ZHANG Runfeng, YANG Shaoqiong, ZHANG Lianhong
2023, 18(1): 29-42, 51. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02435
The underwater glider (UG) is a new type of underwater vehicle driven by buoyancy, which has the advantages of low energy consumption, high efficiency, long-endurance, low cost, reusability and so on. The UG can also meet the needs of long-term and large-scale ocean observation and exploration. As an observation platform, the UG needs to carry out path planning and correction continuously in the early stages and during missions in order to better serve the requirements of ocean observation and exploration. First, this paper summarizes the relevant literatures on path planning research methods for UG in recent years. UG path planning algorithms are mainly divided into three categories: traditional algorithms, intelligent optimization algorithms and multi-algorithm fusions. Combined with practical application, the performance of different path planning algorithms is compared. The key technologies of UG path planning, such as environment reconstruction, environment perception, intelligent decision-making and underwater positioning, are then summarized. Finally, the development direction of UG multi-algorithm integration, multi-glider cooperation, multi-dimensional integration of spatiotemporal constraints and high-precision in complex and unsteady environments are prospected.
AUV cluster path planning based on improved RRT* algorithm
ZHANG Lanyong, HAN Yu
2023, 18(1): 43-51. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02879
  Objective   Aiming at the cluster control problem of small underactuated autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), a formation control strategy based on an improved RRT* algorithm is designed.  Method  Paths planned by the RRT* algorithm are steep and difficult to track, with slow convergence speed, so an improved method is proposed to solve the above problems. First, a deviation function is added to bring the random sampling points closer to the target point, then the sampling points are connected smoothly using a Dubins curve. By rerouting within the variable radius range and designing the cost function in relation to the curve length and obstacle avoidance, the best path is chosen. According to the cost and minimum value, multiple AUVs are assigned a rendezvous point, and the speed of multiple AUVs is coordinated to complete the minimum rendezvous time constraint. A segmented vector field construction method based on the Dubins path is then designed, enabling multiple AUVs to track the planned path and reach the target rendezvous point with the direction remaining the same.  Results  The simulation results show that the average path length of multiple AUV formations is shortened by 26.6% and the average assembly time is shortened by 21.7%.   Conclusion  The improved algorithm proposed herein has high path planning quality and can successfully complete formation assembly tasks.
Multiple USV cooperative algorithm method for hunting intelligent escaped targets
SONG Lifei, XU Kaikai, SHI Xiaoqian, SUN Hao, CHAI Wei, GUO Rong
2023, 18(1): 52-59. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02974
  Objectives  A multiple unmanned surface vehicle (USV) cooperative hunting algorithm based on the double layer switching strategy is proposed to cope with the difficulties of USVs in hunting intelligent escaped targets.   Methods  Specifically, the first hunting strategy adopts the improved potential point method. The Hungarian algorithm is employed in order to dynamically allocate potential points for USVs, and the optimization goal is applied to minimize the total linear distance between USVs and potential points. In this process, the artificial potential field method is used to achieve cooperative collision avoidance. The second hunting strategy takes advantage of the nature of the Apollonius circle to tighten the surrounding area, i.e. two USVs go to the target point of the escaped target to intercept it, while the remaining USVs maintain the same direction as the escaped target. Moreover, in order to deal with the different escape strategies of targets, the first and second layers of hunting strategy can be transformed into each other.  Results  Numerical simulation shows that the proposed algorithm can reduce the hunting time to less than or equal to that of the sequential distribution potential point algorithm and polar angle distribution potential point algorithm.  Conclusions  The results of this study prove the effectiveness and progressiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Finite-time ship formation control based on extended state observer
NING Jun, CHEN Hanmin, LI Wei, WANG Qifu, LI Tieshan, CHEN Junlong
2023, 18(1): 60-66. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02438
  Objective  In order to solve the problems of most current ship formation control algorithms such as their long control cycle and poor timeliness, this paper proposes a finite-time control strategy based on an extended state observer (ESO).  Methods  First, a nonlinear terminal sliding-mode control algorithm is proposed which overcomes the singularity problem of the traditional terminal sliding-mode by designing the control law in different regions. Then, the nonlinear terminal sliding-mode control and graph theory are then combined to realize finite-time ship formation control. In addition, the ESO is used to observe and compensate for the uncertainties and external disturbances in the ship model in order to ensure the accuracy of ship formation control. Finally, the Lyapunov theorem are used to verify the stability of the ship formation control law.   Results  The simulation results show that the system error of the whole formation approaches zero in about five seconds using the proposed control strategy, thus its achieves stability.  Conclusions  The proposed control strategy can effectively control ship formation and has fast control speed and good timeliness.
Anti-disturbance optimal coverage control of ASVs
LIU Yang, JIA Hongchun, LIU Lu, WANG Dan, PENG Zhouhua
2023, 18(1): 67-77. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02492
  Objectives  This paper addresses the anti-disturbance optimal coverage control of under-actuated autonomous surface vehicles (ASVs) in fixed ocean areas.  Methods  At the kinematic level, the Voronoi tessellation is carried out based on the locations of adjacent ASVs and environmental density information, and guidance laws for under-actuated ASVs are designed to guide each ASV to the optimal target point. Next, considering model uncertainties and external disturbances due to wind, waves and ocean currents, at the kinetic level, a fixed-time extended state observer (FTESO) is developed and a fixed-time kinetic control law is designed on the basis of the FTESO.   Results  Stability analysis shows that the error of the closed-loop anti-disturbance optimal coverage control system is bounded, and simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.   Conclusions  By using the proposed coverage controller, ASVs are able to achieve the optimal coverage of the target area from any initial position.
Obstacle avoidance of unmanned ship swarm based on virtual navigator and improved Hooke's law
YAN Bingcheng, CAO Le
2023, 18(1): 78-88. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02372
  Objective  Aiming at the obstacle avoidance of unmanned ship swarm, this paper proposes an elastic formation control method based on a virtual navigator and improved Hooke's law.  Methods  First, the external ellipse is obtained according to the length and width of the obstacle, and the virtual obstacle avoidance area, obstacle avoidance response area and free navigation area are then extended outward according to the aspect ratio in order to simplify obstacle avoidance on the surface of the water. Second, based on the virtual navigator and improved Hooke's law, the constraints on relative distance and speed between each members of the formation as well as those between each members of the formation and the virtual navigator are given, and the formation configuration of the multiple unmanned ships is set in the form of coordinates so as to construct an elastic formation model. Further, based on the obstacle annular repulsive field, the obstacle avoidance of a single unmanned ship is realized. The obstacle avoidance of the multiple unmanned ships can then be realized under the organization of the elastic formation. Moreover, the sailing process of unmanned ship is optimized to eliminate the phenomena of "wandering" and "shaking" in the process of formation and obstacle avoidance, and increase the smoothness of the movement of the unmanned ship. Finally, four unmanned ships are used to form a formation, and a simulation experiment based on Matlab is carried out.  Result  The results show that all obstacles are successfully bypassed, verifying the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.   Conclusions  This method can achieve the avoidance of surface obstacles for unmanned ship swarms, giving them a certain ability to pass through complex environments, thereby providing references for the application and research of unmanned ship swarm obstacle avoidance.
Influence of seabed sand wave on hydrodynamic performance of submersible
LI Peng, GUO Yu, QIN Hongde, DENG Zhongchao
2023, 18(1): 89-98, 123. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02716
  Objectives  This paper studies the hydrodynamic characteristics of submersible under the interference of seabed sand wave topography.   Methods  Based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, the process of submersible passing above a seabed sand wave is simulated in the STAR-CCM+ software using the overset grid method, and the evolution of the resistance coefficient and lift coefficient during the process is calculated.   Results  The results show that when the submersible navigates near the seabed, interaction forces act on it. When the bow moves near the wave crest, the maximum negative lift occurs, and when the stern moves near the crest, the maximum resistance occurs. The different surface pressure distribution rules of submersible at different speeds lead to different evolution rules of the lift coefficient. The smaller the H/D, the more significant the influence of the seabed sand wave on the resistance and lift force of the submersible. When H/D > 5, the influence of the seabed sand wave on the resistance and lift force of the submersible can be ignored.   Conclusions  The results of this study provide valuable references for the safety and maneuverability of submersibles.
Hydrodynamic characteristics of underwater vehicle with X-rudder configuration coupling with incidence and rudder angle
CHEN Jijun, PAN Ziying, ZHENG Wentao, CHEN Mo, XIA Xian, XIAO Donglin
2023, 18(1): 99-106. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02537
  Objective  Due to the different arrangement and control mode of an underwater vehicle with an X-rudder configuration, the effectiveness of the after-control-surface is influenced by the angle of incidence of the underwater vehicle.  Methods  Numerical simulation is carried out on SUBOFF model with an X-rudder configuration, including variations of single rudder coupled with attack angle and drift angle respectively, along with fitting research for each case.  Results  The results show that the hydrodynamic characteristics related to rudder angle for the two orthogonal planes are different because of the significant interaction between the rudder and main body. The effectiveness of the top right rudder and lower left rudder decreases and increases with the incidence angle respectively for the studied range of incidence and rudder angle, and is also different from its straight running conditions. The relative change of the rudder derivative is up to 16% in quantity.  Conclusion  This study can provide references for the motion modeling and simulation evaluation of underwater vehicles with an X-rudder configuration.
Ship Design and Performance
Difference in ship motion and wave load in long and short crested irregular waves
JIAO Jialong, ZHANG Hao, CHEN Yuanming, SUN Shuzheng
2023, 18(1): 107-115. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02679
  Objective  To investigate ship motion and load responses in realistic 3D waves and overcome the limitations of the traditional 2D wave assumption, this paper develops a method for predicting ship motion and load responses in short-crested waves.   Method  The long- and short-term responses of ship motion and load in long- and short-crested waves are numerically predicted using the spectral analysis and statistical probability methods, respectively. The influence of directional function on ship response is also numerically analyzed. Moreover, tank model tests and a large-scale model sea trial are comparatively conducted to validate the difference between ship response and statistics in long- and short-crested irregular waves.   Results  The results show that when navigating against the waves in the same sea condition, the long-crested wave assumption overestimates the statistical mean value of ship load response, but underestimates extreme load in real seas. For long-crested waves, the ship motion and acceleration power spectrum is concentrated around a certain frequency band.   Conclusion  Ship motion and load responses in realistic 3D waves are significantly different from those in 2D long-crested waves. The directional function of short-crested waves also has a significant effect on ship motion and load responses.
Robust adaptive course-keeping control of under-actuated ships with the rudder failure
WANG Wenxin, LIU Shang, ZHANG Guoqing, ZHANG Xianku
2023, 18(1): 116-123. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02525
  Objective  A robust adaptive course-keeping control algorithm is designed to deal with the course-keeping problem for under-actuated ships with rudder faults, gain uncertainty and marine disturbances.   Methods  By combining the robust neural damping technique and adaptive approach, numerous neural network (NN) weights can be compressed horizontally, and only two gain-related adaptive learning parameters need to be designed to compensate for both the gain uncertainty and unknown fault parameters. The proposed controller is proven to be semi-global uniform and ultimately bounded (SGUUB) through Lyapunov analysis. Finally, the Nomoto mathematical model is established using "Yukun", and the effectiveness and superiority of the course-keeping algorithm is illustrated by carrying out comparison experiments under marine interference conditions.   Results  The results show that the average rudder angle of "Yukun" under rudder failure is reduced by 51%, significantly improving control performance.   Conclusion  The results of this study can provide references for tackling the course-keeping control problem of under-actuated ships.
Analysis on maneuvering motion characteristics of submarine under static moment in vertical plane
CHEN Qian, LIU Zhihua, LUO Feiyang
2023, 18(1): 124-140, 151. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02367
  Objectives  Aiming at the problem of poor depth-changing ability of the stern rudder of submarine at low speed, and the problem of reversing the movement trend is difficult when the stern rudder is stuck and encountering abrupt changes of seawater density in the vertical steering maneuver. This paper conducts the mechanism research of static moment maneuver.   Methods  First, it is proved through theoretical analysis that the static moment maneuver can eliminate the reversed velocity phenomenon of the stern rudder. Then, the surfacing process under the static moment maneuver and the rudder hydrodynamic control is numerically simulated.   Results  The simulation results show that the static moment maneuver can make the submarine maintain good vertical plane maneuverability at low speed, eliminate the reversed velocity phenomenon of the stern rudder, and avoid excessive trim angle of the submarine at high speed. At the same time, the recovery effect of the two emergency situations of rudder jamming and falling deep has been improved.   Conclusions  The static moment maneuver is beneficial to the maneuverability and safety of the submarine. The research in this article can provide a reference for the maneuverability design of submarine.
Experimental study of controlling tip clearance flow in a pump-jet propulsor
HAN Ruilin, YU Haiting, HUA Hongxing, LI Huiyao, HUANG Xiuchang, DONG Xiaoqian
2023, 18(1): 141-151. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02419
  Objective  This paper aims to suppress the adverse effects of tip clearance flow on the hydrodynamic performance and unsteady excitation force of a pump-jet propulsor.   Method  As for the pre-swirl stator pump-jet propulsor, an annular flexible seal structure closely matched with a rotor tip ring is used to study the validity of suppressing the clearance flow on the rotor tip. The rotor thrust and torque of the propulsor are measured by keeping the shroud approximately rigidly fixed, enabling the rotor open water efficiency to be obtained. In addition, the point of cavitation inception at each design condition is observed and recorded carefully with the help of a high-power stroboscope, and the cavitation inception curves of the propulsor with/without tip clearance are obtained through calculation. Finally, tests of shaft vibration acceleration on the pump-jet propulsor with/without tip clearance are conducted under conditions of cavitation and non-cavitation in order to evaluate the effects of diminishing tip clearance.   Results  The results show that the thrust and torque of the rotor of the pump-jet propulsor with a flexible seal structure are significantly increased, which in turn renders open water efficiency significantly increased at low and medium advance coefficients, unchanged near the design point and slightly decreased at the high advance coefficient. Moreover, the cavitation performance of the pump-jet propulsor without clearance is better at a wide range of advance coefficient, 0.85 <J< 1.40, near the design point. In addition, compared with a pump-jet propulsor with clearance, the amplitude of axial vibration acceleration of the shaft equipped with a pump-jet propulsor without tip clearance is significantly reduced at most characteristic frequencies.  Conclusion  The results of this study demonstrate that using a flexible seal structure to suppress tip clearance flow has a positive effect on improving open water efficiency at low and medium advance coefficients, optimizing cavitation performance at the design point and suppressing the shafting vibration of the propulsor.
Influence of exhaust parameters on mid-infrared radiative characteristics of the plume
WANG Zhen, SONG Zhenguo, CHENG Yong, YANG Shuihua, HUANG Zhifeng
2023, 18(1): 152-157, 169. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02376
  Objectives   Infrared radiative (IR) characteristics of the plume are the main part of ship infrared radiation. The influence analysis of exhaust parameters on radiative characteristics is very important for developing ship stealth and anti-stealth technology.   Methods  In this work, the line-by-line method is applied to solve radiative transfer in gaseous media. Infrared radiative images of plumes under different temperatures and flow rates are obtained. Radiance, spectral radiative intensity, and spectrum-integrated radiative intensity over 3−5 μm are calculated and analyzed.   Results  Results show that there are obvious peaks of spectral radiative intensity curves at 4.18μm and 4.43 μm, and an obvious valley at 4.26 μm.   Conclusions  The infrared radiation characteristics of the ships exhaust plume are greatly affected by the exhaust temperature, but less affected by the exhaust flow rate.
Simulation and experiments of vibration-induced noise of low-frequency magnetic antenna
LIU Ruijie, JIA Di, LIN Feichi, LANG Liang
2023, 18(1): 158-162. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02401
  Objective  This paper aims to evaluate the impact of flow-induced vibration on the receiver performance of low-frequency magnetic antenna in an underwater environment, investigating the electromagnetic-induced noise of antenna under different vibration conditions.   Methods  First, a fluid excitation antenna vibration model is established using COMSOL software, then an antenna vibration-induced noise model is constructed to simulate electromagnetic-induced noise. Finally, outdoor experiments to measure the antenna vibration-induced noise are carried out.   Results   The results show that the stronger the antenna vibration is, the greater the electromagnetic-induced noise is. When the antenna vibration acceleration reaches 0.029 4 m/s², the electromagnetic-induced noise above the pT level will be caused, and the normal communication signal will be submerged.   Conclusion  The results show that the proposed model in this paper can be used to evaluate the vibration-induced noise of low frequency magnetic antenna.
Analysis of X-band RCS statistical characteristics of ship body in motion state
DU Xiaojia, LI Peng, NI Jiazheng, YAN Hongzhou, SHI Feifei
2023, 18(1): 163-169. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02369
  Objective  In order to clarify the interference of ship movement on the radar cross section (RCS) measurement statistics of a real ship, the statistical characteristics of ship body X-band RCS under various motion states are analyzed.  Methods  A dynamic RCS simulation method of a ship body under low sea state motion is established, and a unified model of hydrodynamic simulation and electromagnetic scattering is created on the basis of the DTMB 5415 benchmark surface ship model. The dynamic RCS data of ships detected by X-band radar at a horizontal incident angle are obtained, and the influence boundaries and rules of statistical time, sea state, speed and sea wave direction on the statistical features of RCS are analyzed.   Results   The results show that the statistical characteristics of the dynamic RCS of a ship body are different from those in a static state. The influence range of the general values of RCS under low sea state, speed and wave angle is within 0.9 dB. The RCS of a ship's characteristic direction is sensitive to changes in the sea wave direction angle, and decreases gradually with the increase of the sea state.  Conclusions  The results of this study can provide references for better understanding the interference of ship motion on the statistical characteristics of RCS measurement, and support the selection of real ship RCS measurement conditions.
Influence of Magnus cylinder and variable angle flap on the aerodynamic performance of unmanned sailboat
DENG Haoyun, GUAN Dianzhu, LI Senmao, WANG Xianhui
2023, 18(1): 170-180. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02693
  Objective  This paper aims to study and optimize the influence of Magnus airfoil and variable angle flaps on the aerodynamic performance of unmanned sailboats in order to improve the sailing efficiency.   Methods  NACA 0021 is used as the basic airfoil for the mainsail, and the Magnus cylinder is coupled with the tip edge of the mainsail to analyze the influence of key parameters (i.e., diameter, position and gap) on the lift-drag characteristics of the airfoil. On this basis, a flap sail is embedded at the trailing edge of the mainsail to study the flow field conditions and lift-drag characteristics of the airfoil under different flap deflection angles, and its influence on the thrust performance of the unmanned sailboat.  Results  The results show that under a large angle of attack, the Magnus cylinder has an improving effect on the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil; its lift-to-drag ratio is positively correlated with position and negatively correlated with diameter and gap within the studied range; diameter and gap have a greater effect on the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil than the position; the variable angle flap has a more obvious improving effect on the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil under a small angle of attack, and the lift-to-drag ratio is positively correlated with the flap deflection angle in a 0°–15° angle of attack; and within the studied range, the joint action of the Magnus cylinder and flap has a maximum improvement of 27% on the thrust coefficient of the sail, and the thrust coefficient is positively correlated with the flap deflection angle.  Conclusion  The results of this study can provide references for the application of Magnus cylinders and embedded flap in the field of unmanned sailing.
Numerical analysis of hydrodynamic characteristics of rotational cavitator with improved wedge-shaped blade
LI Dawei, ZHAO Mengshi, ZENG Qingfeng, ZHENG Zhiying, PEI Yu, YAO Shunyu, YAO Liming
2023, 18(1): 181-188. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02547
  Objectives  A rotational cavitator generates supercavitation through the high-speed rotation of its blades in water to meet the practical application requirements of various projects. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the blade profile in order to improve the working performance, and investigate the influence of the improvement of the blade profile on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the cavitator.   Methods  First, the original wedge-shaped blade is modified, and 3D geometric models of the cavitator before and after the modification are established. Numerical simulations are then carried out of the natural cavitation generated by two cavitators at different rotational speeds. Finally, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the two cavitators are compared and analyzed according to the calculation results.   Results  The results show that with the original blade profile, the cavity is only generated by the trailing edge, but with the improved blade profile, the cavity can be also generated by the secondary leading edge, and the two cavities are gradually connected with increasing rotational speed. Therefore, the rotational cavitator with the improved blade profile produces a larger cavity and stronger natural cavitation. In addition, with the improved blade profile, the cavitation effect is relatively stronger at the blade root, while with the original blade profile, it is stronger at the blade tip. The cavity generated by the cavitator with the improved blade profile at higher rotational speed touches the surrounding wall of the device, resulting in a linear change in the shape of the cavity tail along the radius.   Conclusions  The results of this study can provide important references for the design and application of rotational cavitators.
Numerical simulation of icing characteristics and aerodynamic performance degradation of airfoils under different incoming flow conditions
PENG Lei, ZHU Junhao, WANG Meng, WANG Zhongyi
2023, 18(1): 189-198. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02495
  Objective   This paper aims to study the effects of the freezing phenomenon of supercooled water droplets in intake air on the aerodynamic performance of a marine power intake system under cold marine environment conditions.   Methods  First, an NACA 0012 airfoil is taken as the research object, its aerodynamic performance is numerically simulated and the validation of the established model and numerical simulation method are verified through comparison with the experimental results. Commercial software Fluent is then further developed using the user-defined function (UDF), the numerical simulation of the impingement characteristics of supercooled water droplets is carried out based on the Lagrange method, and the water collection coefficients corresponding to various inflow conditions are obtained. Finally, combined with dynamic mesh technology and the user-defined function, the icing characteristics of the airfoil and its aerodynamic performance degradation characteristics after icing are numerically studied.   Results  The results show that the intake flow angle and diameter of water droplets have a significant influence on the impingement range of the droplets and the water collection coefficient, while incoming velocity has little effect on the impingement range of the droplets, but a certain influence on the water collection coefficient. In addition, under the condition of zero degree angle of attack, the ice accretion on the leading edge of the airfoil has little effect on its aerodynamic performance. Conversely, under the condition of five degrees angle of attack, the icing of the leading edge has a serious impact on its aerodynamic performance.   Conclusion  The results of this study can provide valuable references for the prediction and analysis of icing in marine power intake systems and subsequent anti-icing work.
Ship Structure and Fittings
Analysis on influence of grid density on element failure strain in penetration numerical simulation
ZHU Benting, WU Guomin
2023, 18(1): 199-204. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02519
  Objectives  In order to solve the problem of numerical simulation of flat-nosed projectile penetration into metal plates, the influence of mesh size on element failure strain value and residual velocity of projectiles was studied.   Methods  The finite element software LS-DYNA was used to simulate the process of uniaxial tensile test of Q235 steel sample, and the failure strain of the element under the grid density is obtained by the elongation of the tensile sample during fracture. In the meantime, the correction curve of the failure strain with the grid density was plotted and dynamically corrected. Then, the numerical simulation of flat-nosed projectile penetrating Q235 steel plate was carried out with the target plate meshed with different sizes. The failure strain of Q235 steel material was selected according to the correction curve. Finally, the residual velocity of the projectile is compared with the experimental results to analyze the influence of mesh size on the simulation results of the penetration resistance problem of the metal plate in the numerical simulation.  Results  The results show that the element failure strain selected in the numerical simulation should increase with the increase in grid density, and in the case of the metal plate anti-penetration problem, it should increase with the increase of the grid density. In the problem of penetration resistance of metal plates, the simulation results of residual velocity prediction gradually converge with the experimental results. With the increase of mesh density, when the grid size is 0.5 mm, the average relative error of the numerical simulation and the test fitting curve in the velocity section is 5.13%, and the error between the numerical simulation and the test is larger in the low-speed section. Moreover, the residual velocity of the projectile body is more sensitive to mesh density in the low velocity range.  Conclusions  The related calculation methods and research results have a certain reference value for the selection of mesh size and material failure strain in the projectile penetration problem.
Response characteristics of hull girder under the combined action of wave and underwater explosion bubble pulsation load
ZHAI Jinzhu, LI Qiuqiu, KONG Xiangshao, ZHOU Hongchang, WU Weiguo
2023, 18(1): 205-212, 222. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02550
  Objectives  During the mission, the ship may be simultaneously subjected to the combined wave load and underwater explosion bubble pulsation load, resulting in the "superposition effect" of hull response and the loss of total strength of the ship. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the dynamic response law of hull girder under the combined action of above-mentioned loads.   Methods  First, a simplified hull girder model is established by theoretical analysis, and the bubble pulsation load of underwater explosion and wave load are solved. Then, based on the Hamilton Principle, the differential equations of motion of hull girder at both free ends subjected to the two loads are derived separately and jointly. Finally, based on the solution of the motion differential equation, the hull girder's free vibration response and the simplified model's motion response under the three working conditions of external load combination are analyzed.   Results  The results show that under the combined action of the two loads, the motion response of the hull girder is 15% larger than the linear superposition of the motion response of the two loads alone.   Conclusions  The research done can provide a reference for developing an algorithm to analyze the motion response of ship structures under combined loads.
Size effect on the intrinsic dynamic characteristics of the orthogonally stiffened plate
TANG Dong, MA Zitong, LUO Feng, CHEN Mengke
2023, 18(1): 213-222. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02601
  Objectives  In order to explore the relationship and difference between the intrinsic dynamic characteristics of the orthogonally stiffened plate of different dimensions, the scale effect of the intrinsic dynamic characteristics of the construction members, such as the beam and the plate, as well as the dynamically coupled structure of the two construction members, the orthogonally stiffened plate, was analyzed and discussed.   Methods  Taking the models of the beam, the plate and the orthogonally stiffened plate as research objects, the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the above-mentioned models of different sizes were calculated by the finite element method. The influence of boundary conditions on the scale effect is discussed in terms of the similarities and differences between the natural frequencies of the beam model and the plate model of the unit scale under the free boundary conditions with those of the models under the simply supported boundary conditions. The influence of dynamic coupling between the construction members of the beam and the plate on the size effect of the intrinsic dynamic characteristics of the orthogonally stiffened plate was investigated by discussing the similarities and differences between the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the orthogonally stiffened plate of unit scale with those of the beam model and the plate model of unit scale.   Results  Numerical results show that the variation of the natural frequencies of the model of unit scale against the size of the model under free boundary conditions no longer strictly follows the law that the natural frequencies are inversely proportional to the square of the size, but it is generally similar, or close to, the law.   Conclusions  The dynamic coupling between the construction members of the beam and the plate, results in the transformation of the variation of the natural frequencies against the size of the orthogonally stiffened plate of unit scale from a rapid decrease to a gradual increase. It also leads to dislocation and distortion of the mode shape of specified orders of the orthogonally stiffened plate, which contrasts with the classical pattern and regular lattice distribution of mode shapes of the unstiffened plate.
Impacts of natural frequency and relative stiffness of stiffened plate on nonlinear dynamic response
JIANG Wei, HAN Guangwei, ZHANG Yan
2023, 18(1): 223-230. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02515
  Objectives   This paper studies the influence of impact load on the dynamic response of marine stiffened plates.   Methods  According to the relevant specifications and references, the sizes of hull stiffened plates are determined. Finite element software ANSYS is used for modeling with Shell 181 element. The load is applied uniformly on the surface of the stiffened plate, and its boundary condition is fixed. The impacts of the natural frequency and relative stiffness of the stiffened plate on its nonlinear dynamic response under impact load are then analyzed.   Results  The results show that the piecewise function relations expression of natural frequency and deflection response are obtained according to the different influences of geometric dimensions. The relative stiffness of the stiffened plate affects its deformation mode, and the critical values are 0.2 and 19.   Conclusions  These quantitative conclusions have important reference value for the safety evaluation of hull structures.
Influence of equivalent stiffness form from stern bearing to transverse vibration of shafting
ZHOU Huihui, LI Tianyun, ZHU Xiang, NIE Rui, LI Qingsheng
2023, 18(1): 231-239. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02346
  Objectives  Due to the larger length-to-diameter ratio of the stern bearing, it is difficult to reflect its actual operating conditions when simplified to the traditional equivalent model of single-point support. Therefore, the influence of the equivalent form of the stern bearing on the transverse vibration characteristics of the shafting is investigated.  Methods  The improved Fourier series is introduced to describe the lateral vibration displacement of propulsion shafting. Then, the calculation model of lateral vibration performance of propulsion shafting under various equivalent forms, such as single-point support, multi-point support or continuous distributed support, are constructed based on the energy principle. Thereby, the influence of the change of support stiffness equivalent to the liquid film pressure on the lateral vibration of the shafting and the influence of the propeller excitation on the vibration response of the shafting are further analyzed. Finally, the results acquired by the proposed model is compared with the results of related references and finite element method (FEM) to verify the validity of the calculation model.  Results  The multi-point support calculation results converge to the continuous distributed support calculation results. The three-point support equivalent form can be used to study the influence of liquid film pressure distribution on the lateral vibration characteristics of the propulsion shafting. The shafting response under propeller excitation is affected by the revolution speed.  Conclusions   The research indicates that three-point support equivalent form can be used to analyze the influence of liquid film pressure on the shafting lateral vibration performance. The proposed model in this paper has advantages of good convergence, high accuracy, and less cost-consuming.
Model reconstruction method of non-structural surface of hull grillage based on RGB-D depth image
WANG Shuo, CHEN Zhen, NI Chongben
2023, 18(1): 240-246, 259. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02489
  Objectives  In order to reconstruct the 3D shape of the non-structural surface of the hull plate frame accurately and quickly, and lay a foundation for the study on the high-precision and efficient measurement of the hull structure deformation, a model reconstruction method based on RGB-D depth image was designed.   Methods  First, the Random Sampling Consistency algorithm and the Least Square Method are combined to remove outliers in the point cloud, and then the checkerboard target position information of RGB color image is used to register the Multi-View Cloud of structure. Second, the point cloud is clustered by the regional grid of the structure surface, and the spatial curved surface of each grid point cloud subset is fitted by using the Least Square Method to realize point cloud fusion. On this basis, the high-order panel element is used to realize the 3D reconstruction of the hull structure outer plate surface. Finally, the accuracy of the model reconstruction method is verified by comparing the specimen reconstruction model with the laser scanning point cloud.   Results  The results show that compared with the laser scanning point cloud, the root mean square error of the random points on the 3D reconstruction model of the test object is 1.02 mm. The modeling accuracy meets the needs of ship construction engineering, but the data acquisition time of the structure RGB-D depth image is negligible compared with the laser scanning.   Conclusions  The research shows that the 3D reconstruction of the non-structural surface of the hull plate frame can be accurately and efficiently completed based on the proposed method, which provides a strong data support for the deformation measurement of the hull structure.
Marine Machinery, Electrical Equipment and Automation
Constructal optimization design of hybrid microchannel heat sink with single-sided internal fin array and comparative study of genetic algorithms
LU Zhuoqun, XIE Zhihui, WU Feng, LIU Haili, WANG Rong, NAN Gang
2023, 18(1): 247-259. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02472
  Objectives  This study seeks to improve the thermal management technology of electronic devices through constructal optimization design.   Methods  First, the 3D flow and heat transfer numerical model of a hybrid microchannel heat sink is established, and the volume ratio and relative position of its single-sided internal fins are fixed. Constructal optimization is then performed, for which the height-to-width ratio h/w and spacing distribution of fins ε are taken as the design variables, and the minimization of the temperature gradient uniformity factor in the solid region of the heat sink is taken as the objective. The exhaustive method and genetic algorithm are subsequently performed.   Results  The results show that both the exhaustive method and genetic algorithm can find the minimum value of the temperature gradient uniformity factor and corresponding optimal construct, and the temperature gradient uniformity is improved by up to 13.30% compared to that of the finless microchannel heat sink. The relative difference in the obtained minimum objective function value between the exhaustive method and ten genetic algorithm schemes is no more than 0.92%.   Conclusions  This study provides new optimization design results for the research and development of heat sinks for electronic devices.
Speed-loop bandwidth design method for controller parameters of ship hydrogen storage DC electric propulsion system
SONG Wujian, WANG Guoling, LUO Chenghan, LI Zhenyu, XU Shunxiao
2023, 18(1): 260-268. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02558
  Objectives  This paper aims to study the problems that the external electrical characteristics of a hydrogen fuel cell are soft, its dynamic characteristics are poor and its system stability is susceptible to the influence of propulsion load in marine hydrogen storage DC electric propulsion systems.   Methods  First, an analysis is performed of the output external electrical characteristics of the hydrogen fuel cell and the propeller load conditions of the marine electric propulsion system, then a ship-engine-propeller model and a frequency-domain model of drive control system for a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) are set up. Next, a speed-loop bandwidth design method is proposed, considering the external electrical characteristics of hydrogen fuel cell and propeller load conditions. Finally, on basis of the parameters of a mother ship, an electric propulsion system for a hydrogen-battery DC electric propulsion ship in a hardware-in-loop experimental platform is established to verify the proposed method.  Results  The experimental results show that the speed response of the motor has no overshoot under this method, and the speed-loop fluctuation is reduced by 5 r/min when the load torque disturbance occurs.   Conclusions  The speed-loop bandwidth design method proposed in this paper improves the comprehensive characteristics of the ship hydrogen storage DC electric propulsion system, and is easy to implement in engineering.
Experimental research on measurement of soot concentration under spraying on exhaust gas of diesel engine
WU Lianwei, WANG Xinggang, SHI Shuai, WANG Zhen, CHENG Jianping, CHENG Qiang
2023, 18(1): 269-276. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.02354
  Objective  In this paper, experiments are carried out to investigate the effects of water spray on the soot removal of diesel engine flue gas.  Method  A Dekati low pressure impactor (DLPI) is used to sample smoke soot in a flue. The sampling gun is wrapped in a heating belt and the temperature is controlled to prevent the condensation of wet flue gas after spraying and maintain the same state of soot in the flue. First, the uniformity of flue gas concentration is measured by a flue gas analyzer to verify that the flue gas distribution is basically uniform, and the sampling time is determined by DLPI. The soot purification efficiency under different diesel engine loads and different water spray volumes is then measured and compared.   Results  The results show that the efficiency of soot removal can reach 50%. Under the same spray rate, the soot removal efficiency of the diesel engine under 100% load is higher than that under 50% load. When the spray rate reaches a certain value, the efficiency of soot collection and purification may reach the extreme value. Under 50% load, the contact time between water spray and soot is longer, and the agglomeration effect of small particles is more obvious than under 100% load.   Conclusion  The measurement results show that water spray can effectively reduce the soot emissions of diesel engines.