2013 Vol. 8, No. 2

水面舰船集成优化设计探讨
LI Shuang, TIAN Binbin, XU Qing, XU Bin, CHEN Li
2013, 8(2): 1-5. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.001
Abstract:

舰船综合作战能力的最大化与舰船资源的稀缺性是舰船设计阶段永恒的矛盾,集成优化设计正是在此背景下提出的解决舰船需求与现实之间矛盾的方案。通过提炼国外水面舰船集成优化设计思想,总结舰船集成优化设计的概念与原则;描述国内水面舰船集成优化设计存在的问题,并在此基础上提出舰船总体应通过做好型号总体顶层设计、落实总体设计优化工作及加强对总体和系统的监督管理,舰船系统应通过优化系统结构、提高“四化”(自动化、智能化、信息化及标准化)程度及提高系统效率等方面加强集成优化设计工作;展望了集成优化设计在改变设计理念、提升舰船能力及经济性等方面的收益。

基于虚拟现实的舰船使用和维修性分析评价系统
ZHANG Yumei, WEI Qinqi, ZENG Jun
2013, 8(2): 6-12. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.002
Abstract:

针对舰船总体使用和维修性设计验证手段不足的现状,基于并行工程思想,以虚拟现实、计算机仿真和高性能图形系统作为共性支撑技术,同时依据虚拟现实技术与CAD,PDM以及与使用和维修相关的CAE的集成,构建舰船使用和维修性分析评价系统。该系统构建了面向使用和维修的功能样船和动素层人体姿态库,基于可达性和人因工程两个指标完成舰船使用和维修性分析评价,通过与PDM系统集成实现数据管控与总体设计并行开展。本文的研究成果可为在设计阶段发现、解决舰船的使用和维修问题,提供普遍使用的技术依据和实施方法。

A Risk Evaluation Model of Submarine Collective Escaping CapsulesBased on the Expert Weight and Risk Matrix
CHEN Shengchun, CHEN Huawei
2013, 8(2): 13-16,27. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.003
Abstract:
The submarine collective escaping capsule is an innovative emergency equipment for lifesaving purposes. Owing to the lack of statistical data,the risk evaluation of submarine collective escaping capsules is difficult to perform through conventional methods. Aiming at the problem,this paper combines two distinct calculating procedures to form an innovative model for risk evaluation. Particularly,the calculation of the risk grade is based on expert weights,and the calculation of the risk probability is based on the fuzzy set theory. Focusing on the key technology of submarine collective escaping capsules,a preliminary risk evaluation is conducted. The results agree with those obtained from similar foreign equipment,which validates the applicability and reliability of the proposed evaluation model.
飞行员着舰的多层次模糊综合评价方法
XU Weibao
2013, 8(2): 17-21. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.004
Abstract:

舰载机着舰是一项十分危险的任务,为保证着舰安全性,要求每一位舰载机飞行员都拥有熟练的着舰技能。飞行员着舰评估能够为飞行员训练提供反馈,是辅助提高飞行员着舰技能的有效途径。分析整个舰载机着舰过程的影响因素,提炼可用于评估舰载机着舰表现的指标;运用层次分析法建立着舰评估体系,利用模糊层次分析法实现飞行员着舰综合评估的方法;最后利用仿真数据将算法评估结果与专家评估结果进行对比。结果表明,所建立的飞行员着舰评估指标体系与评估方法可以有效地对飞行员着舰过程进行评估分析。

Numerical Simulation of the Submarine Self-Propulsion Model Based on CFD Technology
YANG Qin, WANG Guodong, ZHANG Zhiguo, FENG Dakui, WANG Xianzhou
2013, 8(2): 22-27. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.005
Abstract:
The self-propulsion test of submarines is a key technology when evaluating its performance. In this paper,the simulation and modeling of a full appendage submarine with high-skew propeller are presented. Particularly,the flow patterns,the thrust and torque of the propeller and the wave resistance of the submarine are obtained via three-dimensional numerical analysis. Furthermore,analysis of the hydrodynamic properties of the SUBOFF bare hull as well as the appended submarine reveals high consistency between the two. It is observed that both the propeller thrust and the submarine body resistance are functions of the propeller rotating rate while the inflow velocity remains constant. Consequently,through altering the propeller rotating rate,various self-propulsion points can be determined under different inflow velocities. In brief,the proposed model provides insight into the flow pattern of full appendage submarines with 7-bladed propellers,and helps improving the overall performance and efficiency of the propeller.
最小阻力的参数化船型优化研究
CHEN Wenzhan, CHEN Wei, YANG Xianghui, QIU Liaoyuan
2013, 8(2): 28-33. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.006
Abstract:

采用基于形状参数的船型参数化方法实现复杂舰船的参数化建模,利用Isight集成框架构建基于阻力的船型优化模型,实现参数化船型生成、阻力计算及优化算法等功能模块集成。以某船型为例,选取5个船型参数作为优化变量开展船型优化,并对优化算法开展研究分析。优化研究获得了阻力最小的船型参数组合及合适的优化算法,算例表明,基于形状参数的船型优化方法具有较强的适用性。

多块结构化网格在高速水面舰船阻力计算中的应用
ZHOU Peng, LI Wei, CHEN Taoying
2013, 8(2): 34-40. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.007
Abstract:

对于高速航行的舰船,由于其航行姿态变化明显,因而以设计浮态为基准的阻力理论计算结果并不能准确预报其实际航行阻力。基于RANS方程,划分多块结构化网格,采取一种简化的迭代方法对高速舰船的阻力进行数值计算,当傅氏数在0.15~0.44之间时,阻力计算结果与船模试验值相比误差均保持在5%以内。结果表明,该方法充分考虑了船体姿态的影响,对提高高速舰船的阻力预报精度具有一定的可行性。同时,分析了不同傅氏数下的自由表面波形图和波形等值线图,以及艏艉兴波随航速的变化趋势,结果显示符合试验规律。

基于虚长度法的高速双体船兴波阻力预报
LI Zhiheng, CHEN Qingren, ZHU Haiyong, ZHENG Lijie
2013, 8(2): 41-45. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.008
Abstract:

应用经典薄船理论,以Michell兴波阻力积分公式为基础,针对高速船的方尾船型特点,采用“虚长度”法,即在方尾后增加一个虚拟附体以使尾部封闭,通过对NPL船模系列(包括3b,4a,4b,4c,5a,5b,5c,6a,6b,6c共10条船型)的文献数据进行分析,总结得到一个计算虚长度的公式,同时对代号分别为4a,5c,6b的3种船型的兴波阻力进行数值计算,并与文献中的实验数据进行比较。研究表明,3条双体船型的计算结果与实验数据在趋势上吻合较好,在高傅汝德数下误差小于6%,符合工程应用要求。

The Determination of Element Failure Strain with theElement Removal Method
ZHANG Meilan, CHEN Zhen, ZHAO Sheng
2013, 8(2): 46-52,64. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.009
Abstract:
To simulate the tensile fracture process of cracked plates using the element removal method, this paper analyses the method of choosing element failure strain and various influencing factors. Resorting to the finite element software,MSC.Dytran,the maximum load,displacement and energy of the cracked plate are calculated,based on which the effects of the material property and grid size on element failure strain are investigated. The deviation of the failure strain under three criterions is discussed. The results show that the failure strain determined by the energy criteria,which considers both the load and displacement,best agrees with the experimental data,and the mechanical property of cracked plates are also reflected correctly. On the other hand,the maximum displacement criteria provides larger maximum load result than expected,which makes it suitable for the numerical calculation that focus on the displacement of cracked plates. Finally,the deviation of the maximum load criteria is too large to reflect the accurate mechanical property of cracked plates. Above all,the element removal method is best suited for simulating the fracture process of large structures.
聚能战斗部对双层靶板结构毁伤的数值模拟研究
CHENG Suqiu, CHEN Gaojie, ZHAO Hongguang
2013, 8(2): 53-57. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.010
Abstract:

新型聚能装药战斗部是高效毁伤战斗部的发展方向之一,已成为各国研究的重点。利用LS-DYNA软件,对聚能战斗部侵彻过程进行数值模拟,提出一种利用相对侵彻深度定义结构毁伤等级,进而表征聚能战斗部毁伤能力等级的评估方法,并利用实爆试验测量的穿孔大小和侵彻深度对数值模拟结果进行验证,该研究方法能够为设计新型聚能装药战斗部提供参考。

内河船舶极限强度计算的逐步破坏法程序设计
LUO Wengang, YANG Ping, CUI Huwei, BAI Xiaoxi
2013, 8(2): 58-64. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.011
Abstract:

在船舶设计与强度评估中,为更加真实地了解船体结构的安全极限,要求计算船体梁的极限强度。逐步破坏法由于其计算效率高,结果比较可靠,被广泛运用于大型海船设计,但在内河船舶设计规范中,至今尚无有关极限强度的条款。通过非线性有限元程序计算得到加筋板单元平均应力应变关系,并与Rahman法、CSR法以及ISUM方法计算得到的应力应变关系曲线进行对比,以验证其可靠性。然后,按照一定的规律建立符合内河船舶构造的加筋板单元应力应变关系数据库,并编写逐步破坏法计算程序,在计算过程中,其能根据加筋板单元尺寸自动选取对应的关系曲线;对参数超出数据库的情况,则通过插值实现。

Research on the Equivalent Modulus of Elasticity ofTransverse Reinforced Core Materials
LI Piao, CHEN Meixia, LUO Qi
2013, 8(2): 65-72. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.012
Abstract:
In order to investigate the equivalent modulus of elasticity for the transverse reinforced core material,the Mori-Tanaka method,based on the Eshelby theory,is first applied to obtain the equivalent modulus of elasticity of the core material embedded in a composite sandwich plate. The numerical simulation is then conducted via the ANSYS code package to obtain the equivalent modulus of elasticity for a unit cell, and the simulation results are compared with those calculated with the Mori-Tanaka method,which reveals a difference less than 5%. On this premise,further research is conducted to investigate the effects of variable Young modulus and related matrix sizes on the equivalent modulus of elasticity of the composite core material. The results indicate that the transverse effective elastic Young modulus and in-plane Poisson ratio can be easily affected by changing parameters,yet less influence is observed for the in-plane Young modulus and the transverse Poisson ratio.
Effects of Three Turbulence Models on the Cavitation Performance Evaluationfor Ducted Propellers
LI Chao, ZHOU Qidou, PAN Yucun, TAO Shan
2013, 8(2): 73-79. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.013
Abstract:
The cavitation performance of ducted propellers is simulated by employing a Rayleigh-Plesset cavitation model and three turbulence models resorting to the computational fluid dynamics(CFD)software. A comparison between the calculated results and experimental data reveals the detailed effects of different turbulence models and cavitation numbers. The results show that the k ω model has better convergence and is more stable and accurate than the k ε model and the RNG k ε model,which suggests the k ω model to be the most ideal in evaluating the cavitation performance of ducted propellers. However, when the cavitation number or the advance coefficient is small,the cavitation will become relatively severe and the calculation errors may increase for the k ω model,since the k ω model is more sensitive to the cavitation number compared with the other two. Thus,a more accurate cavitation model or a better quality of the mesh is required.
Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of the Ventilation System in Closed Engine Rooms Based on CFD
JIANG Shiwei, XU Xiaoxin
2013, 8(2): 80-83,89. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.014
Abstract:
In order to pre-determine the ventilation effectiveness of the closed cabin ventilation system and to identify the potential problems in airflow organization or temperature distribution in the preliminary design,the steady three-dimensional turbulent flow inside the ventilation system is simulated via CFD. Then,several substantial improvements on the system are made,which includes the addition of inlet and outlet vents in the front wall of the engine rooms and changing the airflow direction on both sides. The test result is highly consistent with the estimation from empirical formulas and shows that the proposed optimi? zation scheme significantly improves the airflow organization and ventilation effectiveness.
Effects of Lateral Reinforced Plates on Underwater Vibro-Acoustic Features ofRing-Stiffened Cylindrical Shells
WANG Lucai, ZHOU Qidou, JI Gang
2013, 8(2): 84-89. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.015
Abstract:
An approach combining the finite element method and the boundary element method is proposed in this paper to calculate the underwater vibration and acoustic radiation of a ring stiffened cylindrical shell under the reinforcement of various lateral plates. The effects of different lateral reinforced plates to the cylindrical shell are analyzed by comparing the respective numerical results. It is shown that lateral reinforced plates may reduce the vibration and acoustic radiation of the cylindrical shell,where the reduction effects are most significant on the plate build from longitudinal stiffeners,followed sequentially by stiffeners,semi-spacing boards and whole spacing boards. Also,the vibration and noise reduction becomes stronger as the frequency goes higher. It is worth noticing that the effects described in this paper are mainly restricted within the areas between the rings on the shell,and they are not so significant on low frequency vibration.
舰船管路阀组单元振动特性分析及结构参数优化研究
YANG Bo, ZHU Xiang, ZHANG Ganbo
2013, 8(2): 90-94. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.016
Abstract:

管路阀组单元是舰船管路系统中的重要组成部分,阀组的振动通过阀组架传递到船体,从而引起船体的振动与噪声,对阀组结构进行优化以减小传递到船体的振动,对舰船振动与噪声控制具有重要意义。利用有限元软件ANSYS建立阀组单元的有限元模型,对阀组单元进行振动响应分析,得到阀组单元在垂直和水平载荷激励下的加速度振动特性。通过分析阀组架的阀架臂长、布置间距和阀架角钢尺寸等结构参数对振动的影响,对这些参数进行组合设计并优选结构参数,提出优化方案,使得阀组单元的声振特性得到了有效改善,传递到船体的振动加速度降低了10 dB。

舰船艉轴架系统固有振动特性测试与分析方法
Ding Deyong, Zhang Wei, Yang Kun
2013, 8(2): 95-99. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.017
Abstract:

艉轴架系统是由艉轴、前(后)艉轴架臂以及螺旋桨等共同组成的复杂构件系统,其固有振动特性的有效测试、合理分析和振型识别对于开展舰船艉轴架设计、建造以及控制舰体尾部振动等具有重要意义。为此,针对艉轴架系统的构成特征以及组成构件的固有振动特性,分别建立理论分析模型,通过分析,认为艉轴架系统固有特性属于复杂构件系统的振动问题,其固有特性取决于艉轴及前(后)艉轴架臂的共同特性,两者间存在较大关联性,实际模态的识别应根据工程需要加以确定。基于以上分析,给出艉轴架系统固有特性测试要求和振型识别原则,并以某型舰的艉轴架系统为例开展固有振动特性试验测试和模态识别,取得了良好的效果。

Quantitative Reliability Analysis of the Steam Turbine Pump inNaval Lubricating Oil Systems Based on Bayesian Networks
ZHAO Xiaoer, YANG Zichun, CHU Zhuli
2013, 8(2): 100-104. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.018
Abstract:
A systematical research on the steam turbine pump in naval lubricating oil systems is conducted. Particularly,the structure and functional relationship between different components of the system,as well as its typical failure modes are investigated. In order to test the reliability of the system,a Bayesian Network is established based on the FTA model of three typical failure modes. Then,the conditional probability table is corrected by considering the inherent uncertainties within the system. This modification improves the accuracy of the quantitative reliability analysis. Also,the reliability of the system and the importance of root nodes are derived with the precise inference algorithm. The results reveal several critical components that need regular backups and focus monitoring. In brief,the proposed method can be employed to improve the general reliability of the system.
平台固定式水成膜泡沫灭火系统消防安全试验与评估
ZENG Yong, YANG Manjiang
2013, 8(2): 105-110. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.019
Abstract:

为应对船舶直升机起降平台所发生的火灾,一般设置有泡沫枪灭火系统。为更加高效地扑灭起降平台所发生的较大火灾,提出了设置甲板平台固定式水成膜泡沫喷洒灭火系统(AFFF)的设计思想,并通过一系列的灭火试验来验证该系统灭火的有效性。针对不同的油池面积、喷头数量和喷射压力,以及灭火过程是否存在遮挡等状态,共进行了10次灭火试验。根据试验测量数据,从灭火与控火时间,以及灭火过程中火场热辐射变化等方面对甲板平台固定式AFFF的灭火效能进行评估,讨论系统压力、流量及喷头数量对控火时间的影响。试验和分析结果表明,甲板平台AFFF对于发生在直升机甲板平台的无遮挡大型池式火灾具有较好的灭火效能,其在大型船舶和海洋石油钻井平台的直升机起降甲板上也有较好的应用前景。

舰船甲板防滑涂料技术现状及发展趋势
DENG Qi, XU Jinwen, GAO Xinhua, WU Youli
2013, 8(2): 111-116. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2013.02.020
Abstract:

从有机甲板防滑涂料和无机甲板防滑涂料两个方面阐述舰船甲板防滑涂料的技术发展及应用情况,并针对舰载机甲板防滑涂料的国内外发展概况进行重点介绍。结合当前甲板防滑涂料的发展情况,分析舰用新型甲板防滑涂料的发展趋势,指出我国甲板防滑涂料研制的重点发展方向。目前,舰船甲板部位的涂料正向无溶剂、水性化、功能性等方向发展,舰载机防滑甲板涂料正向低太阳能吸收、高耐久性、快干性、无机型等方向发展,我国应重点发展长效、环保、多功能和施工方便的舰船甲板涂料。