2012 Vol. 7, No. 6

减小常规潜艇排水量的技术途径分析
WU Jun, LIU Mingjing
2012, 7(6): 1-6,15. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.06.001
Abstract:

潜艇排水量大小与其总体性能密切相关,随着潜艇技术的发展,存在潜艇排水量不断增加而导致其总体性能降低的问题。为提升潜艇的综合作战能力,需有效控制排水量。德国212A型和俄罗斯“拉达”级等世界先进常规潜艇的排水量及其变化趋势分析结果表明,当今具代表性的世界先进常规潜艇的正常排水量约为1 500~1 700 t;通过对组成常规潜艇排水量的载荷进行分解分类,分析了各类载荷占常规潜艇排水量的比例(载荷系数),得出常规潜艇排水量的载荷权重(结构重量约占40%,动力装置约占20%~30%)。通过对影响潜艇排水量的主要因素的分析,提出以总体优化设计技术为手段,以动力装置和船体结构为重点的排水量控制途径。

美海军DDG-1000 全舰计算环境体系结构探析
DONG Xiaoming, SHI Chaoming, HUANG Kun, WANG Yunfeng
2012, 7(6): 7-15. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.06.002
Abstract:

作为美海军新型多任务驱逐舰DDG-1000的关键技术之一,全舰计算环境(TSCE)代表了舰船信息系统集成技术的先进水平,带来了舰船系统设计和集成方式的变化。在描述TSCE的项目背景、系统概况、技术架构、任务系统以及海军开放式体系结构(OA)等的基础上,分析全舰计算环境基础设施(TSCE-I)的结构和组成,包括数据处理、适配、人机接口、网络等基础设施,以及实现面向服务架构(SOA)的相关技术权衡,得出公共计算服务环境是未来舰船提高综合作战能力和信息化水平的有效手段。并根据分析研究,提出了开展TSCE研制必须突破的几项主要关键技术。

Effects of Changing the Explosive Position on the Damage of Stiffened Plates Subjected to Air Contact Explosion
WU Linjie, ZHU Xi, CHEN Changhai
2012, 7(6): 16-22. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.06.003
Abstract:
To investigate the effects of changing the explosive point on the missile air contact explosion damage(on stiffened plates),finite element simulations are conducted to analyze the damage processes, crevasse sizes and distortional energies of stiffened plates in eight different cases(a combination of two explosive charges and four explosive points). The results show that when the same amount of explosive explodes at different points,the discrepancy of crevasse sizes can go beyond 20%. Also,the crevasse shapes are markedly distinct even with less explosive charge. Particularly,when the explosion occurs at the decussation of stiffeners,the distortional energy can be twice as much as that at the centre,and the distortional energy of the whole plate can be 40% or more.
基于AUTODYN的气泡与固定壁面相互作用数值模拟
ZHANG Wei, YUE Yongwei, ZHANG Aman, SUN Longquan
2012, 7(6): 23-30. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.06.004
Abstract:

阐述了AUTODYN软件模拟水下爆炸气泡的原理及过程,通过球对称模型以及重力场中气泡的实验数据与AUTODYN计算结果的对比,验证其在计算气泡脉动时间和压力等方面的计算精度,并以此为基础研究近壁面水下爆炸气泡的动力学特征以及影响因素,包括无量纲距离对气泡形状的影响,固壁面对气泡最大半径、脉动周期和射流时间的影响,以及近固壁面气泡射流速度及压力的变化等,总结相关规律,为气泡的数值模拟研究提供参考。

倾斜侧壁正八边形天线罩风载特性研究
SUN Baoguo, LI Gang, LIU Hai, GAO Honglin
2012, 7(6): 31-36. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.06.005
Abstract:

风载是综合集成桅杆复合材料天线罩所受的主要载荷之一,研究天线罩的风载特性将对复合材料天线罩的结构设计具有重要指导意义。采用试验和数值模拟的方法对倾斜侧壁正八边形天线罩的风载特性进行研究,分析天线罩表面平均压力系数和脉动压力系数的周向分布规律,以及Strouhal数(St 数)随雷诺数(Re 数)和风向角的变化规律,并将计算结果与试验结果进行比较分析。研究结果表明:平均压力系数和脉动压力系数沿周向分布变化较大,不同风向角下St 数随Re 的增加趋于稳定值,平均压力系数和脉动压力系数计算值与试验值基本相近。

Vibration and Acoustic Radiation of Cylindrical Shell with Indentation
ZHENG Han, ZHOU Qidou, JI Gang, WANG Lucai
2012, 7(6): 37-44. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.06.006
Abstract:
To investigate the effects produced by a stiffened cylindrical shell indentation on underwater vibration and acoustic radiation,an approach combining the finite element and boundary element was adopted. Through FORTRAN and DMAP codes,the added mass and added damping matrices were first computed,and then added to the structural mass and damping matrices,where the problem of fluid structural interaction was solved. The corresponding frequency response curve measuring the mean-square velocity and radiated sound power from cylindrical shells with different sizes,depths,positions of indentation were obtained. The results show that when the force point deviates from the position of indentation,the indentation has little influence on underwater vibration and acoustic radiation. On the other hand,when the force point locates at the same position as the indentation,the decibels of mean-square velocity and radiated sound power appear to be significantly higher(up to 4 dB)than that those under the condition without indentations. Therefore,it is advisable to avert forces from positions of indentation when conducting experiments on vibration and sound radiation from cylindrical shells.
Optimization Design of Vibration Characteristic of Ship Composite Pedestal with High Transmission Loss
YAO Xiongliang, QIU Zhonghui, PANG Fuzhen, XIE Xiaozhong
2012, 7(6): 45-49. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.06.007
Abstract:
On the basis of the structural dynamic optimization design theory,this paper investigates the structure of the composite pedestal of a typical submarine double cylinder shell with high transmission loss. To achieve the optimum vibration reduction,the exact sectional dimensions and positions of the rigid vibration isolation mass is first determined through preliminary optimization. Next,the rigid vibration isolation mass is equated with a bulb flat with the same section moment of inertia. By considering the restriction of the gross weight and the structural strength of dangerous sections,the structural dynamic optimization formula is established. Basically,the objective function minimizes the average vibration acceleration of the non-pressure hull for all frequencies,and the design variables such as the hole radius and the pedestal degree are carefully chosen. Results show that the composite pedestal with high transmission loss considerably reduces the vibration noise in the medium-high frequency range,where the average vibration acceleration of the non-pressure hull is decreased by 1.66 dB.
Calculation Procedure of Sloshing Loads for Large-Scale Depot Ships
JIN Jing, XUE Hongxiang, TANG Wenyong, ZHANG Shengkun
2012, 7(6): 50-56. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.06.008
Abstract:
With the ever-expanding size of depot ships,the problem of liquid sloshing in cargo tanks becomes increasingly highlighted. In order to provide reliable reference data during the design process of tank structures for large-scale depot ships,a calculation procedure of sloshing loads with high precision and numerical stability is proposed in this paper. This procedure uses the improved VOF method,namely the Youngs method,to reconstruct the free surface and incorporates partial cell parameters to deal with complex non-rectangle liquid tank boundaries. Experiments with different filling ratio were conducted,and the results obtained with this procedure and those with Hirt-Nichols method were compared. It has been found out that the method suggested here could improve the free surface simulation speed as well as the estimation accuracy of the internal velocity,acceleration and pressure. Also,a separate cell sensibility analysis successfully validates the method's reliability with coarse grids,which suggests that it could be also applied to the quick estimation of design sloshing loads.
Experimental Study on the Resistance of Trimaran with Slant Side Hulls
CUI Jian, WEN Yiyan, CHEN Peng, YANG Songlin
2012, 7(6): 57-62. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.06.009
Abstract:
As a high-performance hull form,trimaran has attracted extensive attention from researchers. To investigate the effects that different slant side hulls exert on the wave-making resistance performance of trimaran,this paper presents a new trimaran model with slant side hulls,with which several resistance experiments have been conducted in a towing tank. By adopting the ship model towing test method,the experiments first measured the model resistance of the trimaran at different slant angles and with different loads. Then,the experimental data were calculated according to the Froude assumption and were correspondingly analyzed. The results show that selecting the appropriate slant angle of side hulls would reduce the sailing resistance of trimaran,which offers a good reference for the design of similar hull forms,especially for those emphasizing the speed performance of hulls.
A Design for Ocean Thermocline Simulation Pool Based on the Similarity Theory
ZHOU Xubin, MA Jie
2012, 7(6): 63-70,77. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.06.010
Abstract:
In order to simulate the thermocline characteristics of ocean environment and investigate the hydrodynamic performance of an underwater thermal glider navigating within,various characteristics of the ocean thermocline simulation pool are analyzed in this paper,based on the similarity theory. The pool is first designed to simulate the underwater thermocline layer with a depth no less than 10 meters and a temperature gradient of 0.2 Celsius degrees per meter. The technical parameters of the pool include the scaling factor,principal dimensions,temperature field and dynamical similarity coefficient. Next,the resistances of the glider model tested in the pool and that of the actual glider in the ocean are obtained using a numerical simulation approach and ITTC’s experiential formula of drag,respectively. Comparison between the results shows a difference less than 5 percent. Meanwhile,the temperature gradient of the pool is measured with a linear series of temperature sensors. The result also indicates a difference less than 3.5 percent compared with real data,which again validates the feasibility and reliability of the pool. It is found out that the temperature gradient ratio of the simulation pool to the ocean thermocline layer should be determined by the square of the scaling factor. Moreover,the adverse effects such as the blocking effect,shallow water effect and side wall effect could be well restrained by choosing an appropriate dimension of the pool.
管道内波速变化对水锤现象的影响分析
FANG Chengyue, ZHAO Guanhui
2012, 7(6): 71-77. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.06.011
Abstract:

管道内水锤波速受管道自身以及管内流体等多种因素的影响,在实际工程中,管内流体性质变化以及管道的结构材质的不同都会引起对应水锤波速的变化。选取了两种典型的波速变化情况——整管波速变化与管路中不同位置局部波速变化,利用一维流体软件FLOWMASTER对其进行仿真分析,着重研究这两种情况下波速变化对管内水锤压力波幅值与周期的影响。在整管波速变化情况中,考虑当阀门关闭时间与关阀水锤周期之间的大小关系不同时波速变化对水锤现象的影响,以使结论更为合理全面。在局部波速变化情况中,改进了用平均波速变化来分析局部波速变化的方法,引入了波的散射理论对位置变化带来的影响,并进行了分析,比较了管路中各个典型位置上波速变化所对应的水锤现象,突出了波速变化位置的影响,可为管路设计与水锤防护提供参考。

Design and Implementation of a Training Simulation System for Submarine Power Systems
ZENG Fanming, CHEN Yutao, HU Jinhui
2012, 7(6): 78-85. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.06.012
Abstract:
To meet the demand of simulated training for warship and submarine power platforms,the state of arts of marine power training simulation systems is first discussed in this paper,and several fundamental system architectures as well as key technologies in the system design are then investigated. On this basis, by examining a conventional submarine power platform system as a model example,the specific design and implementation technique of marine power training simulation systems are further described in details, which includes the analysis of practical requirements,the overall design of system architecture and software,the modularization modeling methods of real-time performance simulation,the establishment of simulation model libraries,and the design technique of hardware interface systems.
基于仿真的全柴联合动力装置特殊工作制联控曲线研究
XU Qing, YANG Yishun, XIN Yuanjian, TANG Leijie, WANG Yongsheng
2012, 7(6): 86-89,97. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.06.013
Abstract:

针对全柴联合动力装置单轴工作制和三机工作制相应的联控曲线以保证推进性能综合最优的需求,运用计算机仿真方法对某全柴联合动力装置的单轴工作制和三机工作制的联控曲线进行研究。首先,建立推进系统各部件的数学模型并将它们集成为整个推进系统的数学模型。基于这些数学模型和仿真计算,运用“船—机—桨”匹配原理提出特殊工作制联控曲线的一般设计原则,经实船使用,证明所设计的联控曲线能有效实现原设计目的。

大温差变风量送风技术在潜艇空调中的应用
DONG Peng, LI Zhiyin, JIAN Qifei
2012, 7(6): 90-97. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.06.014
Abstract:

针对潜艇存在的空调系统能耗高、舱室温、湿度控制难等问题,综合分析了空调系统中的大温差低温送风以及变风量空调的特点与应用技术现状,结合潜艇舱室空调的热负荷特征,提出了将大温差低温送风、变风量控制和温、湿度独立控制相结合的系统技术方案,克服了传统活塞式半封闭压缩机效率低、大温差低温送风系统送风下坠、射流冷风感等技术问题。通过与目前的常规定量空调系统进行对比分析发现,该方案可降低系统能耗30%,增强了空调降温除湿的调节和控制能力,并且通过减少空调送风量和送水量,使空调风机噪声降低了5 dB,减小了设备及管系的尺寸和重量,有利于潜艇舱室噪声以及空间布置和排水量的控制。

潜艇液体除湿空调系统探讨
PENG Guangming, MAO Zhiqiang, ZHENG Hao, DENG Xinping, ZHANG Yao
2012, 7(6): 98-101. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.06.015
Abstract:

液体除湿空调克服了传统空调除湿与制冷能力不匹配的问题,因而受到广泛关注。针对潜艇舱内的热湿环境,分析了液体除湿空调系统应用于潜艇的可行性,在综合考虑潜艇舱室空间布局和系统节能性要求的基础上,提出为目前的空调系统增加除湿剂循环系统,并根据系统的要求分析工作原理,改进空调器的设计,甄选除湿剂类型,解决除湿剂再生的难题,设计出一种满足潜艇舱室环境要求的液体除湿空调系统,实现潜艇舱室低耗安静除湿功能。

一种水面舰船对空自防御作战能力计算模型
ZHU Rensheng, XIE Hongsheng, GUO Hongwei, YAO Tenggang
2012, 7(6): 102-106. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.06.016
Abstract:

在基于集中指挥的舰船对空自防御作战中,目标指示时间对目标的拦截次数有较大影响。为精确反映目标指示时间对拦截次数的影响,建立了集中指挥方式下的舰空导弹拦截次数计算模型。首先,根据集中指挥方式下的对空自防御作战过程,得到单发射单元对目标拦截次数的模型,然后将多发射单元对目标拦截次数计算问题转换为多个单发射单元对目标拦截次数计算的问题,从而得到多发射单元对目标拦截次数的模型。对不同目标指示时间、雷达跟踪距离、发射单元数条件下的拦截次数进行计算,结果表明,计算模型能够反映目标指示时间、雷达跟踪距离以及发射单元对拦截次数的影响。

舰载火箭弹弹道重构与模型验证
DING Chuanbing, HU Yifeng, TAO Yong
2012, 7(6): 107-111. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.06.017
Abstract:

为了验证火箭弹系统六自由度仿真模型的可信性,建立用于弹道重构的系统状态模型和基于GPS观测数据的量测模型,运用无迹卡尔曼滤波(UKF)算法和TIC不等式系数法,探讨仿真模型静、动态性能的验证方法。以某型舰载火箭弹系统为研究对象,通过重构火箭弹飞行状态的误差参数,对其仿真模型进行定量验证。仿真结果表明,利用弹道重构方法对六自由度弹道仿真模型进行验证是有效的。

船模与实船水下电场相似性分析
WU Zhengzheng, FAN Kai, YIN Dewu
2012, 7(6): 112-115. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.06.018
Abstract:

舰船水下电场信号作为重要的物理特性已受到广泛的关注和研究。通过研制船模并进行水下电场实验室测量来了解实船水下电场分布情况,可以较好地解决舰船水下电场的海上测量较困难这一问题。通过引入相似性原理,分析比例船模的电场分布与实船电场分布的相似性关系,提出满足相似性的电场船模设计准则,实船和船模水下电场对比实验验证了相似性准则的有效性。

舰船机电产品可靠性验收试验方法
LI Nan, CHEN Fang
2012, 7(6): 116-119. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.06.019
Abstract:

按照国家标准要求,可靠性试验方案的制定、判别标准和试验结果判定方法的确定均非常复杂,处理不当,易使参试方和承制方对试验结论产生分歧,导致可靠性试验难以展开,尤其对于诸如电动风机、泵组、阀门等舰船通用机电产品而言更是如此。为解决这一问题,促进可靠性试验工作的落实,依据可靠性试验的有关标准和要求,通过对标准试验方法的合理分析,提出了适用于舰船通用机电产品的可靠性试验方法。该方法简单、实用,易于理解和结果判定,可为舰船通用机电产品的可靠性试验验收工作提供新思路。