2012 Vol. 7, No. 5

舰船总体设计流程分析
XU Qing
2012, 7(5): 1-7. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.001
Abstract:

舰船总体设计是舰船装备研制重要的关键环节,其设计流程决定了舰船总体设计的优劣和效率,因此,分析和梳理总体设计流程至关重要。由于舰船总体设计的系统性和复杂性,探讨了舰船总体设计的定义与特点,介绍了舰船总体设计方法和设计阶段应完成的工作及成果,总结了舰船总体设计流程以及各环节应开展的支撑性工作,并展望了舰船总体设计技术发展方向

船舶结构理性设计方法热点问题与展望
SUN Li, WANG Deyu
2012, 7(5): 8-13. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.002
Abstract:

介绍了船舶结构理性设计方法的理念、特点和意义,解释了它与传统的单纯依赖于设计者的经验或规范的设计方法的区别与优势。针对理性设计方法的基于计算机辅助计算和优化策略与算法的特点介绍该设计方法在应用中存在的问题,包括计算成本较大以及参数化建模困难等。并针对这些问题对国内外开展的相关研究及其进展进行了总结。最后,展望了船舶结构理性设计方法在船舶设计领域的应用前景。

Numerical Analysis of the Propeller Low Frequency Flow-Noise
GONG Jingfeng, ZHANG Wenping, MING Pingjian, XUAN Lingkuan
2012, 7(5): 14-21. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.003
Abstract:
In this paper,the numerical simulation of the propeller low frequency flow-noise was investigated,and the acoustic field of propeller DTMB P4119 at an advance ratio of 0.833 was studied. First,the temporal flow field was simulated with the Large-Eddy Simulation(LES)approach. Then,the K-FWH (Kirchhoff-Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings)equations were solved to obtain the low frequency flow-noise. By comparing the thrust coefficients and the torque coefficients calculated with experimental data,the correctness previously simulated temporal flow field could be verified. It could be observed from the simulated flow field that continuous vortex shedding does exist at the propeller surface. Also,the calculated acoustic field shows that(1)the magnitude of discrete noise dominates that of broadband noise;(2)the broadband noise is mainly induced by the vortex shedding phenomenon and is responsible for the circumference fluctuation of overall Sound Pressure Level(SPL)in the near region of the propeller;(3)the SPL at the same radius decreases gradually along the axial direction,and it experiences an initial increase,followed by a decreases along the radial direction.
变周期减摇水舱控制与仿真
SUN Baoguo, XIE Guangdong
2012, 7(5): 22-26. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.004
Abstract:

减摇水舱的设计首先要考虑与船体的适配,同时在设计中要重点考虑水舱的阻尼与周期特性,其中周期特性是水舱最基本的特性参数,适用周期范围越宽,减摇效果越理想。针对变周期减摇水舱的相当长度与一般U型水舱相当长度计算的不同之处——其连通道宽度可调且边舱面积随边舱外壁角变化而变化,通过积分方法推导出了可变周期减摇水舱相当长度的计算公式,提出了一种适用于变周期减摇水舱的估算方法。所设计的变周期减摇水舱采用连通道挡板控制改变周期,避免了气阀控制的时间延迟问题,还可根据船体运动规律调整连通道阻尼挡板以提高减摇效果。以某型船为例,建立了船舶减摇水舱仿真模型。经减摇水舱自由衰减振荡数值仿真方法验证,所提出的周期估算公式可靠。采用该模型研究了变周期减摇水舱的控制方法,结果表明,在其工作范围内,可使横摇角始终保持在8 °以内,可以在5.5~18 s的周期范围内有效减摇,大大超过了被动式减摇水舱的工作频带。

Analysis of Structural Crashworthiness for Fast Boats
CHEN Luyun, HOU Guohua, ZHANG Yufang
2012, 7(5): 27-32. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.005
Abstract:
Ship collision is a complex process consisted of non-linear instantaneous responses. After the collision occurs,the components within the collision zone will rapidly enter a plastic flowing state which entirely disables the components in formats of tearing and buckling. In this paper,the problem concerning small fast boat collisions was presented with its crashworthiness characteristics being discussed. Firstly, the progressive failure of stiffened side plates colliding with a bow was described,and the corresponding penetration depth was analyzed. Next,a crashworthiness evaluation model was established for small boat structures by considering their plastic strain criterion and the penetration depth criterion comprehensively. Finally,the numerical simulation was conducted using finite element analysis,and the optimization procedure for crashworthiness of an innovative side structure was investigated. The results show that for small fast boats,the collision damage mainly comes from the overall deformation of the hull,whose region occupies a large proportion of the boat. In brief,using plastic strain and penetration depth as criterion is both feasible and effective in crashworthiness evaluation tests.
钛合金导流罩结构抗冲击计算
ZHA Youqi, LIU Shiming, JIN Wulei, PENG Yi
2012, 7(5): 33-37. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.006
Abstract:

导流罩结构作为舰艇结构重要的首部结构形式,其在水下爆炸载荷作用下的抗冲击性能不容忽视。为研究导流罩结构的抗冲击性能,以某船钛合金导流罩结构为研究对象,应用大型有限元计算软件ABAQUS,建立有限元模型,采用声固耦合法进行水下爆炸数值仿真计算。通过模拟导流罩结构在船上的安装边界条件,设定水下非接触爆炸冲击工况,计算得到了导流罩结构在爆炸冲击载荷作用下的等效塑性应变、位移、加速度等动态响应,并给出了基阵安装位置的频率特性和冲击环境。研究表明,导流罩底部外板为导流罩结构的危险区域,导流罩基阵安装位置处的响应以中低频段为主。

载人潜水器在母船上系固时的受力计算及分析
ZHOU Yimei, WANG Jianguo, WEI Fang, LUO Wei
2012, 7(5): 38-42. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.007
Abstract:

载人潜水器在母船上系固时的安全性是7 000 m载人潜水器母船设计的关键技术之一,准确预报载人潜水器在母船上系固时受到的作用力,对于潜水器系固装置的设计及系固安全性评估至关重要。根据耐波性理论,针对潜水器搭载母船的实际线型和航行海域情况,提出了基于搭载母船耐波性预报的潜水器系固时受力的简便计算方法,该方法可以计算不同海况时的受力情况,能适应潜水器不同存放或维修工况下系固设计的需要,具有较好的工程适用价值。

Numerical Simulation of Underwater Explosion Bubble Near a Warship
WANG Shiping, ZHANG Aman, CHENG Xiaoou, YAO Xiongliang, CHEN Hailong
2012, 7(5): 43-49. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.008
Abstract:
When an underwater explosion occurs near both a free surface and a warship structure,the bubble motion could be affected. In this paper,the boundary integral equation was solved by adopting the boundary element method(BEM),based on the potential flow theory of incompressible liquid. To reduce the quantity of meshes required when modeling the free surface and to deal with the instability of solid-free surface interfaces,a Green function considering the free surface effect was adopt to replace the fundamental Green function. This numerical method was validated by comparing the above mentioned model with an axisymmetrical model. Also,the bubble motions as well as its jet feature near a warship structure and a free surface were simulated,and it was found out that the bubble jet would not significantly impact the warship structure because of the free surface effect.
改进Catmull-Clark 细分算法及其在船用螺旋桨设计中的应用
WANG Yanhua, SU Zhou
2012, 7(5): 50-54,78. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.009
Abstract:

基于舰艇作战或巡航时隐身性能的需要,针对舰艇关键零件的设计和加工制造现状,结合应用日益广泛的细分曲面造型方法,以Catmull-Clark细分算法为基础,提出一种基于网格边光顺程度计算的自适应细分算法。将该算法应用于船用螺旋桨的设计数值实验,由建模软件3DS MAX及其内部编程语言MAXScript来实现,并将实验结果与原始的Catmull-Clark算法细分结果、传统的顶点或边曲率法自适应细分结果进行了比较。数值实验结果表明,在满足零件设计现实需求的前提下,该自适应细分算法能较好地减少网格数量:当边的光顺度阈值取为0.825时,网格数降低了约28.83%,可提高计算速度,减小存储空间。该算法能克服以往基于均值计算的自适应算法存在的区分能力不足的影响。

Comprehensive Evaluation of Ship ManeuverabilityBased on the Algorithm of Deviation Maximization
QV Junfei, BI Yi
2012, 7(5): 55-59. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.010
Abstract:
This paper applied the algorithm of deviation maximization to the comprehensive evaluation of ship maneuverability. By introducing the weighting vectors and normalized decision making matrix as well as their corresponding effects on the evaluation process,the comprehensive evaluation system of ship maneuverability was established,with the specific principle and calculation procedure of this method illustrated. To test the algorithm,two ship models were evaluated for various maneuverability parameters. The results show that the method of maximizing deviations is maturity in theory as well as precisely and reliably in practice.
基于神经网络的舰船运动模型辨识
LI Chunfeng, BAI Shuyu, LIN Long
2012, 7(5): 60-65. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.011
Abstract:

通过神经网络对线性水动力系数、弱非线性水动力系数和强非线性水动力系数进行了研究,利用免疫模糊遗传算法对各神经网络辨识器进行优化,以确定舰船运动的待识别系数,并且进行了10°/10°Z形操舵运动、30°回转操舵运动和35°回转操舵运动辨识的仿真。结果表明:利用辨识所得的各种典型操舵运动曲线与利用原参数所得结果符合良好。

Data Transformation from CATIA to TRIBON for Naval Ships
NI Haishen, WANG Xuefeng
2012, 7(5): 66-70. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.012
Abstract:
Data transformation among different ship CAD software is a highly concerned issue,with the transformation between CATIA and TRIBON being a particularly important element. By analyzing the structure of model data,a data transformation method from CATIA to TRIBON for naval ships was proposed in this paper. Firstly,the secondary software attached to CATIA was developed to extract its geometry and attribute information,and the precision of this extraction procedure directly determines the overall accuracy of the transformation process. Next,the plug-in software was used to merge the data into a single file and translated it into a valid TRIBON document format. Finally,the remodeling modules of TRIBON were developed to accomplish the transformation. Simulation results show that the proposed method can be used to transmit data among different CAD software effectively and efficiently.
船舶蒸汽动力系统设计方案的仿真验证
FANG Weiming, ZHANG Pengfei, XU Jian, PENG Xuechuang, TANG Ying
2012, 7(5): 71-78. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.013
Abstract:

为在设计初期对某船舶蒸汽动力系统的总体设计方案进行校核,提出了一种系统设计验证仿真方法。首先,在系统初步设计方案的基础上补充完善仿真系统开发所需的设计数据;然后,采用RINSIM仿真平台工具进行模型开发,并通过建模与模型集成调试获得系统仿真模型;最后,进行仿真计算。应用该方法开发了某船舶蒸汽动力系统设计验证仿真平台,并对系统的设计方案进行了校核。结果表明:该设计验证仿真平台的稳态计算结果准确,动态趋势合理,适于对船舶蒸汽动力系统进行设计验证。

船用燃气轮机回热器设计的数值研究
ZHENG Chunbing
2012, 7(5): 79-82. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.014
Abstract:

回热器是提高船用燃气轮机效率的关键部件,其性能的优劣直接影响燃气轮机的特性。以往的文献在介绍回热器设计时,没有考虑冷热两侧气体(分别为空气和燃气)不同的热力性质。考虑这一实际情况,以某型船用三轴简单循环燃气轮机为母型进行回热改造,采用迭代计算的方法,编制计算程序,进行回热器的数值设计,并分析其对燃气轮机的性能的影响。结果表明,随着回热器回热度的增大,燃气轮机的效率不断提高;但当回热度超过一定值时,效率不仅不再提高,反而有所降低。

奇异值分解降噪的改进方法
ZHANG Lei, PENG Weicai, YUAN Chunhui, LIU Yan
2012, 7(5): 83-88. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.015
Abstract:

利用测试信号构造Hankel矩阵进行奇异值分解(SVD)是消除随机噪声干扰的有效方法,其关键是奇异值数目的选取,但目前尚无成熟有效的确定方法。针对这一问题,提出了一种奇异值分解降噪的改进方法,该方法依据去噪后信号极值点数量随奇异值数目变化的关系,可以准确选取与最优降噪效果对应的奇异值数目。仿真及实验结果表明,该方法准确、有效。利用该方法处理船舶和机械设备振动噪声测试信号,可有效提高其信噪比,最大程度地优化信号去噪的效果,提高分析的可靠性。

潜艇舱室大气环境技术发展研究
PENG Guangming, REN Fan, ZHANG Yao, DENG Xinping
2012, 7(5): 89-94,102. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.016
Abstract:

世界各国海军对潜艇空气质量越来越重视,并将舱室大气环境控制水平作为衡量潜艇总体性能的一项重要指标,为“环境质量因素”赋予仅次于武器系统的重要地位。随着潜艇在水下隐蔽航行时间的不断延长,对舱室环境的舒适性提出了更高的要求。空调通风向节能、健康、舒适的方向发展;舱室供氧和二氧化碳清除由资源消耗型向高效再生的方向发展;有害气体的净化向高效和综合净化的方向发展;大气环境监测由分散仪器向集中在线连续监测的方向发展;大气环境质量评估由单一方法发展为主观和客观因素综合评价。根据国外潜艇舱室大气环境技术发展趋势,提出我国未来技术发展方向,即需要重点开展潜艇舱室大气环境综合控制、连续监测和量化评估技术研究。

潜艇舱室大气环境污染物在线检测技术
ZHANG Xiang, HOU Keyong, CHEN Shaojie, WANG Weiguo, LI Haiyang
2012, 7(5): 95-102. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.017
Abstract:

由于潜艇舱室存在空间狭小、设备繁多等特点,因此,当潜艇潜航时,其设备运行、材料释放,以及人的活动和新陈代谢均会使舱室内空气中的各种有害气体种类增多、浓度增大,从而危害艇员身体健康。以微型飞行时间质谱为核心检测手段,建立了基于自主设计的微缓冲区膜进样接口,使得二甲苯、甲苯和苯的信号强度比使用毛细管得到的信号强度分别高500,300和160倍。同时,提出了膜进样飞行时间质谱,使得对苯、甲苯和二甲苯的响应时间分别达到了6,10和15 s。此外,基于VUV灯研发了SPI、SPI-CI和SPI-PEI新型电离源。结果显示:利用单光子电离,对苯、甲苯和二甲苯的检出限分别达到了3×10-9,4×10-9和6×10-9,该技术为潜艇舱室内的污染物气体检测提供了一种有效手段。

舰船目标RCS 水面模拟试验及其应用探讨
WU Nan, CHEN Jiong
2012, 7(5): 103-106,118. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.018
Abstract:

舰船目标作为海上运行的武器平台,其电磁散射的最本质特征体现为目标与海面环境一体化的复合散射。在舰船目标雷达波隐身性设计中,需要开展模拟RCS试验来验证方案可行性。针对舰船所处海面环境的特点,采用双射线追踪方法分析了随机粗糙海面对舰船散射回波特性的影响,提出了关于舰船雷达波隐身设计流程的建议,论证并指出在技术设计阶段需要用接近实际环境的方法进行水面环境舰船隐身设计验证,结合数值仿真与本体RCS试验,掌握并控制舰船隐身性指标和强散射“要害点”,并从场地开阔性、测试方法等方面提出了舰船目标RCS水面模拟试验的测试要求,从RCS指标设计验证、强散射中心分析、总体多专业协同设计等方面,探讨了模拟试验方法的应用和发展方向。

基于自适应拓扑建模的船用电网短路计算方法
WENG Lantian
2012, 7(5): 107-112. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.019
Abstract:

为提高舰船电力系统短路计算的效率、准确性,适应现代舰船规模日趋庞大,结构易变等复杂环境,提出一种基于自适应拓扑建模的短路计算新方法。利用船用电网辐射结构特点,对网络进行二次辐射建模,并针对此模型制定了电源等效次序算法,而后基于戴维南等效定律,将网络中的电源路径按照电源等效次序逐级合并,最后得到网络对于短路点的戴维南等效电路,从而获得短路电流。该算法可对主要异步电机反充负荷进行量化计算,并能应付多电源、多重故障、不对称故障短路等复杂情况。性能分析和算例分析表明:该算法高效、准确,并能适应多种复杂环境。

An Ultrasonic Liquid Level Detecting Technology for Liquid Cylinders inShip Halon Fire-Extinguishing Systems
QIU Jinshui, YI Xianglie, LIU Boyun, TIAN Yiyang
2012, 7(5): 113-118. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.05.020
Abstract:
This paper presented a fixed-point liquid level measuring method using ultrasonic pulse reflection to detect the dose of warship halon fire-extinguishing systems. When ultrasonic wave travels through the gaseous medium and liquid medium,the attenuation rate of the remnant ultrasonic signal was found to be distinct,which was reflected by the different envelope area of the return remnant signal. In this way, the liquid level could be easily defined. Firstly,the received return signal was de-noised using the wavelet analysis theory,and the resulted low-frequency signal was reconstructed into a more realistic signal. Next, a threshold was proposed to judge whether the medium at the detecting point is gaseous or liquid. Finally, the envelope area of the remnant wave signal was examined and compared with the threshold,through which the liquid level can be precisely determined. Generally,all liquid level measuring problems in gas containers with pressure systems similar to fire extinguishing agents 1301,which are widely adopted as marine fire extinguishers,could be easily solved by this method.