2012 Vol. 7, No. 4

水面舰船研制过程中重量重心控制方法
ZHOU Wei, ZHANG Wei-jun
2012, 7(4): 1-5. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.04.001
Abstract:

舰船研制过程中的重量重心控制是关系舰船在全寿期内能否保持舰船基本生存能力特性(稳性、不沉性)的重要问题。介绍了国内外舰船设计过程中排水量极限和重心高极限、排水量及重心高储备设计、各阶段重量重心计算细致度、减重优化设计等控制方法,通过分析舰船建造和使用中的重量重心控制现状和控制方法,提出了水面舰船研制中建立完整的重量重心控制体系,在总体顶层、系统设计、建造、管理等方面的重量重心控制措施和储备设计方法。

舰船维修设计概念与流程分析
ZHANG Ping, HE Jie, WANG Yongde, SUN Guangsu, WANG Tao, CHEN Zhimin
2012, 7(4): 6-10. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.04.002
Abstract:

针对舰船基地级维修特点,提出通过维修设计编制舰船基地级维修资料的解决途径和方法。在分析舰船基地级维修需求和国外维修设计现状的基础上,梳理出维修设计与总体设计、综合保障及维修性设计的关系,对舰船维修设计的目标、阶段划分、设计流程进行研究,分析得出维修设计各阶段工作要求、顶层文件要求、基地级维修资料的分类和内容,并阐述了维修设计管理措施的工程可操作性。

Improving Measures of Thermal Comfort andAir Quality in Submarine Cabin
ZHANG Xiaojing, LIAN Zhiwei, LAN Li
2012, 7(4): 11-16,29. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.04.003
Abstract:
Two major constraints in the sustained operation of submarines are the abominable air quality and thermal discomfort in cabins. In order to solve these problems,some researches were reviewed in this paper,and showed that the thermal senses were quite different due to the diversity of races and regions. Therefore,the standards derived from developed country are not suitable for instructing air-conditioning system design in China,not to mention that in the deep ocean submarine where the environment is much more complex. By combining the method of subjective questionnaires and objective physiological parameters,the submarine environment with good air quality and thermal comfort specific was developed. Regarding these issues,several measures for improving air quality were also suggested. The results show that with the proper standard and multiple measures,thermal comfort state and air quality can be significantly improved.
基于SHIPFLOW软件的方尾舰船阻力快速预报
CHEN Wei, XU Hui, QIU Liaoyuan, JIANG Zhifang, WANG Xiaozhe
2012, 7(4): 17-22. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.04.004
Abstract:

SHIPFLOW软件被广泛应用于基于阻力的船型方案优选,但其对舰船阻力预报的适用性却少有研究。为确保舰船方案论证及优选结果的准确性,针对常规水面舰船方尾船型开展计算分析,提出适用于方尾舰船兴波阻力计算的网格划分方式以及获取兴波阻力系数的方法。为准确估算舰船阻力,可引入排挤厚度来修改船体型值,以在兴波阻力计算中等效计入粘性影响,并在此基础上形成舰船阻力快速预报方法。将某方尾舰船阻力数值计算结果与试验结果进行了对比,结果表明,预报误差基本控制在7%以内,验证了该方法的可行性。

Effects of Twin Shaft Bracket Section Profile and Installation Angle onNominal Wake Field
WANG Zhanzhi, XIONG Ying, LIU Zhihua, JIANG Zhifang
2012, 7(4): 23-29. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.04.005
Abstract:
The stern appendages of a surface ship have great effects not only on the resistance,but also on the nominal wake field. Taking a ship which installed four propellers and two rudders as example,numerical simulation of the 3D viscous flow field on the hull with appendages was carried out based on RANS without considering the free surface effect. The analysis focused on the effects of the twin shaft bracket section profile and installation angle on the viscous resistance and nominal wake field. The results show that the installation angle of shaft bracket can be determined by the direction of flow velocity vector.
破损舰船运动与波浪载荷预报方法
WANG Xiaoqiang, LI Chenfeng, REN Huilong
2012, 7(4): 30-35. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.04.006
Abstract:

为了研究舰船舱室破损对船体运动与波浪载荷的影响,采用三维频域势流理论,计算了发生第二类舱室破损后舰船在斜浪规则波上的运动与垂向弯矩。以一典型破损情况为例,计算了船舶破损后的浮态及稳性,并与破损前进行了比较,结果显示,横摇运动及垂向弯矩明显增加,而其它5个自由度运动则有所减小。基于船舶静力学原理,分析了舰船破损对浮态及稳性的影响。最后,使用格林函数法研究了舱室进水导致的液舱晃荡,结果表明,液舱晃荡附加质量在某些频率附近有明显的共振效应,必须通过阻尼系数考虑流体粘性的影响,避免产生非物理结果。

Collision Force Between Moored Tanker and Offshore Platform
TANG Yougang, TAO Haicheng, WANG Rong, CAO Han
2012, 7(4): 36-40. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.04.007
Abstract:
Collision force and its distribution which acted on the rubber fender of a ship moored to a platform were researched by considering the influence of wind,wave,flow and nonlinear stiffness of the platform fender. According to different angles of wind,wave and flow as well as different wind speed,wave height and flow velocity,the loads of wave and ocean current for mooring system were calculated. And also the analysis model for moored ship was established. Moreover the collision force between the moored ship and a platform were simulated through the method of time domain and frequency domain,and obtained the time history of collision force. Besides,the probability of occurrence of different collision force was analyzed in order to determine the direction of wind,wave and flow which maximum collision force occurred. The results show that the rubber fender stiffness has significant effect on the calculation of collision force, it is essential to choice non-linear fender stiffness when calculating the collision force on the platform. And there are relatively larger deviations by using empirical formula to calculate collision force.
一种高容积阻力比水下热滑翔机壳体外形设计
ZHOU Xubin, MA Jie
2012, 7(4): 41-47. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.04.008
Abstract:

海洋温跃层的温差小,可利用的温差能的能量品质低,水下热滑翔机的热机效率较低,因此需要寻找最低阻力特性的热滑翔机壳体外形。利用水动力数值计算方法,分析了水下热滑翔机4种壳体外形的阻力成因和各自的优缺点,并采用2种不同的求解器对4种壳体外形阻力进行数值计算,不同求解器的计算结果最大偏差小于5%。提出了一个“容积阻力比”的无量纲系数,以此作为评判水下热滑翔机壳体外形综合性能的指标;将纺锤体外形与椭球体首尾外形的优点相结合,提出了水下热滑翔机的新型壳体外形。相比先前讨论的4种壳体外形,该外形具有最大的容积阻力比系数,表明该外形设计在水下热滑翔机的低阻特性与装载能力2种性能之间取得了较好的平衡和兼容。

Design Methods for Damping Materials Applied to Ships
JIANG Yali, LV Linhua, YANG Deqing
2012, 7(4): 48-53. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.04.009
Abstract:
Based on the theory of modal strain energy method and structural dynamic optimization,several methods for improving the application effects of damping materials on ships were presented. Within the same weight of damping materials,the loss factor of damping structure with a certain percentage of holes was improved by compared with damping structure without holes. Then,two models of composite cantilever plates were established with regard to meet the limited loss factor. One was for the optimization design of the thickness,whereas the other was for topology optimization design of the distribution of damping materials. The target function is total weight of damping materials. Finally,the optimal thickness and distribution of damping materials in the first three modes of models were obtained. The results indicate that damping materials with holes can improve the effect of vibroacoustics reduction.
铺板连接结构减振设计分析
HUANG Xichun, CHEN Meixia
2012, 7(4): 54-62. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.04.010
Abstract:

为控制机械振动向船体结构传递,基于不均质结构振动隔离原理,对铺板连接结构进行减振设计。采用有限元方法建立各设计方案的计算模型,进行激励源在铺板不同位置工况下的动响应分析,对比各方案的减振效果并开展缩比模型试验。分析结果表明,U形连接结构对抑制振动从铺板向圆柱壳体传递效果较好;适当减小连接板厚度,减振效果呈增加的趋势。缩比模型测试结果显示,U形连接结构在2 Hz~4 kHz频段有大于4dB的减振效果,仿真计算结果与试验结果吻合较好。

Vibration Wave Propagation Characteristics Optimization Analysis ofthe Typical Pedestal on Double Cylindrical Shell
ZHENG Lü, PANG Fuzhen, YAO Xiongliang, KANG Fenghui, CONG Gang, CHEN Lin
2012, 7(4): 63-68. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.04.011
Abstract:
According to impedance mismatch and wave mode conversion in heterogeneous structure which based on wave analysis method,the characteristics of vibration wave propagation in typical submarine structure were studied. Based on this,vibration and noise reduction performance of artificial transmission loss base was analyzed through FEM/BEM coupled method. By reviewing vibration wave transmission characteristics for composite plate,the conclusions are drawn that the structure impedance changes,when the structure cross section mutates. Thus,leading to impedance mismatch between the structures,so the vibration wave will reflect and transmit in the mutant cross-section,and reduce the transmission rate of vibration. An artificially constructed transmission loss base was designed using the theory,and the vibration and noise reduction performance of the base was verified by FEM / BEM coupled method.
基于四端参数法的管路支架隔振性能研究
LIU Xiufeng, WANG Yongsheng, ZHANG Jingwei, WU Chongjian
2012, 7(4): 69-75. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.04.012
Abstract:

管路支架是管道与船体之间振动能量交互传递的通道,从隔振的角度可以把它看成是一种特殊的隔振器。利用四端参数法建立管路支架隔振系统的振动传递力学模型,推导管路支架的力和位移的传递率。在此基础上,分析管路支架的刚度、阻尼、管道弹性以及基础弹性等因素对力传递率和位移传递率的影响,并通过仿真计算验证了理论求解的相关结论。分析结果表明,管路支架的刚度是影响其隔振性能的主要因素,同时管道和基础的弹性也会产生一定的影响。

Damage Study on Ship Plate Frame Subjected tothe Underwater Contact Explosion
WANG Yaohui, CHEN Hailong, YUE Yongwei, LI Shiming
2012, 7(4): 76-82. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.04.013
Abstract:
Plate frame is the main structure of ships. With the AUTODYN common software,numerical model of the plate frame by underwater contact explosion was established by the couple of the Largange and Euler code,and the simulation results agreed well with the experiment failure mode. Then,the whole failure process of the plate frame by underwater contact explosion was analyzed,and the formation and extension of the crevasse with failure mode of reinforcement was discussed. Besides,the failure mode coupling effect of the plate frame and reinforcing plate was proposed. The results demonstrate the damage characteristics of the plate frame.
舰船舱室环境工程技术综述
CHEN Wenzhan
2012, 7(4): 83-87. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.04.014
Abstract:

介绍了舰船舱室环境工程的概念和内涵,以及国内外研究现状。通过实船调研,分析了我国在舰船舱室环境研究方面存在的问题和不足:首先是在舰船舱室环境的综合研究水平方面还有待提高,其次是在舰船内装材料方面研究水平比较落后,并从开展标准规范研究、积极调研、借鉴国外先进技术、运用现代化的设计手段、采用环保内装材料以及加大管理等几方面给出了相应的建议。

Performance of Adsorption Ice-Making System Driven by Ship Exhaust
CHEN Huanxin, WEI Li, ZHANG Wei, DONG Yuanyuan
2012, 7(4): 88-93. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.04.015
Abstract:
In order to improve the adsorption capacity per unit mass of adsorbent, reduce bed volume, and choose chemical adsorption as refrigerant,the multi-generator absorption ice-making system was introduced. Then the heat transfer performance of unit pipe in the adsorbent bed was researched,and the system influence of unit pipe heat transfer resistance was also analyzed. Besides,some methods of reducing the thermal resistance of each part were discussed. The results show that the percentage of thermal resistance of convective heat transfer is 89%,while heat performance parameter of the adsorption ice-making system driven by ship exhaust is up to 25%.
舰载作战系统数据集成设计与度量方法
DONG Xiaoming, YAO Jin, QIN Ke
2012, 7(4): 94-99. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.04.016
Abstract:

数据集成在作战系统体系结构的设计中处于核心位置,在系统集成堆栈中具承上启下的作用。接口设计是作战系统集成设计的重点,应尽量减少两两之间的成对接口和专用数据格式,以实现数据集成方式从点对点向总线的转变。首先开展基于XML的作战系统数据建模,开发辅助设计软件,建立元数据注册库;然后采用模型驱动的方法,以数据模型为中心进行数据集成设计和体系结构度量。选取了分系统数量、节点数量、接口数量、信息单元数量和作战流程环复杂度等5个定量指标,并通过衍生指标评估作战系统体系结构的特征。数据模型驱动的开发能够支持快速生成仿真系统,可为下一步基于仿真的效能评估奠定基础。

基于全球定位系统的舰载三坐标雷达动态标校方法
DUAN Jingxuan, ZHENG Jianfei, ZHAO Fuzheng, LI Lei
2012, 7(4): 100-104. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.04.017
Abstract:

为弥补舰载作战系统试验中传统三坐标雷达标校方法的不足,提高标校效率,提出一种基于全球定位系统(GPS)RTK模式动态标校舰载三坐标雷达的方法。该方法通过实时录取GPS的定位数据,经过坐标变换和插值修正,给出目标运动的约定真值。对所设计和实现的三坐标雷达标校系统精度的试验检查结果表明,该标校系统满足舰载三坐标雷达的标校工作,同时降低了对环境的依赖性,便于操作,距离误差在4 cm以内。

核动力装置回路水中氚监测用于传热管破损诊断的可行性分析
XING Lili, YU Tao, YAN Xuekun, LIU Cuihong, DUAN Zaiyu
2012, 7(4): 105-107. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.04.018
Abstract:

蒸汽发生器传热管易发生破损,对其破损进行监测是反应堆工艺监测的重要内容之一。分析了核动力装置回路水中氚的产生机理及事故情况下氚在回路水中的迁移过程,利用液体闪烁计数器测量了4个核动力装置一、二回路水中氚的放射性活度浓度。结果表明,一回路水净化后的氚放射性活度浓度与相应的二回路水相比高出2个数量级,分别为633,893,188和394倍,可见利用二回路水中氚的放射性活度浓度来监测蒸汽发生器传热管是否发生破损是可行的。后期,还需对氚的在线实时监测开展深入研究。

Combination Forecasting Method of Ship Equipment Maintenance Cost withPrincipal Component Analysis
XIE Li, YANG Huaining, YIN Xiangping, SUN Yuhua
2012, 7(4): 108-112. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-3185.2012.04.019
Abstract:
Using regression-based combination forecasting method to forecast ship equipment maintenance cost has fundamental drawback that the number of methods available is bigger than the cost samples',making it insufficient to estimate the regression coefficient. This paper proposed to apply the Principal Component Analysis(PCA)on the results which obtained by the individual forecast method prior to building regression-based combination model of a ship equipment maintenance cost forecast,and then the regression model of a realistic ship equipment maintenance cost on selected principal components was established,further,the forecast combination model based on PAC was presented. Meanwhile,in the process of PCA,there was some subjectivity in deciding the number of principal components according as cumulate contribution rate of principal components,so we took the Akaike's Information Criterion(AIC)as a substitution. Finally an exampal was used to analyze and validate the performance of the above mentioned method. The results show that the presented method not only can solve the problem that the number of forecasting models is in excess of the sample's in the regression-based combination forecasting of ship equipment maintenance cost,but also can solve the collinear between individual forecast method. And the performance of the presented method obviously superior to the usual combined forecasting models.